tonto apache language
While anthropologists agree on some traditional major subgrouping of Apaches, they have often used different criteria to name finer divisions, and these do not always match modern Apache groupings. Thus, as can be seen in the example below, when the Western languages have noun or verb stems that start with t, the related forms in the Eastern languages will start with a k: He later revised his proposal in 1971 when he found that Plains Apache did not participate in the *k̯/*c merger to consider Plains Apache as a language equidistant from the other languages, now called Southwestern Apachean. This is a list of 54 ethnobotany plant uses for the uncategorized Apache. Some dialects of Apache include Jicarilla, Lipan, Kiowa-Apache, Chiricahua, Mescalero and Western Apache. It was just thrown together.  Tourism contributes greatly to the economy of the tribe. Local groups were headed by a chief, a male who had considerable influence over others in the group due to his effectiveness and reputation. Minks, weasels, wildcats and wolves were not eaten but hunted for their body parts. Beginning in 1879, an Apache uprising against the reservation system led to Victorio's War between Chief Victorio's band of Apaches and the 9th Cavalry. (2010b) "Cycles of Renewal, Transportable Assets: Aspects of Ancestral Apache Housing". There is a single word for grandchild (regardless of sex): -tsóyí̱í̱. A common practice among Southern Athabascan hunters was the distribution of successfully slaughtered game. The term Apachean includes the related Navajo people. By 1835 Mexico had placed a bounty on Apache scalps (see scalping), but certain villages were still trading with some bands. The Tonto Apache Reservation is located on the southern outskirts of Payson, Arizona. Many Western Apache reject such a classification. ... (In Spanish-language versions of The Lone Ranger, ... has said that kemosabe means “idiot” in Apache. The Tonto Apache Tribe is awarding the Hellsgate Fire District a $25,449 grant for its Critical Hose Replacement Project. A delegation of Yavapai testified to a Congressional Committee against this action, and won. Additional information can be requested by mailing a request to the Tonto Apache Tribal Police Department. In May, the Western Apache baked and dried agave crowns that were pounded into pulp and formed into rectangular cakes. The most important plant food used by the Chiricahua was the Century plant (also known as mescal or agave). In late September, gathering was stopped as attention moved toward harvesting cultivated crops. If one is a female, then one's brother is called -´-ląh and one's sister is called -kʼis. The Tonto Apache Tribe is currently in the process of enacting key provisions of SORNA. In a detailed study of New Mexico Catholic Church records, David M. Brugge identifies 15 tribal names which the Spanish used to refer to the Apache. However, formerly 'they had no permanent homes, so they didn't bother with cleaning.' The primary game of the Chiricahua was the deer followed by pronghorn. The Tonto Apache are the direct descendants of the Dilzhe'e Apache who lived in the Payson vicinity long before the arrival of Europeans. The majority of the Tonto Apache, however, had decided to return together with their Yavapai allies and relatives to the Camp Verde Reservation to form the Yavapai-Apache Nation of today. The Tonto Apache Tribe was federally recognized by Congressional Act in 1972. The Western Apache criteria for evaluating a good chief included: industriousness, generosity, impartiality, forbearance, conscientiousness, and eloquence in language. These were drawn from records of about 1000 baptisms from 1704 to 1862.. Apache languages are tonal languages. They (being now Mangas Coloradas the first chief and Cuchillo Negro the second chief of the whole Tchihende or Mimbreño people) conducted a series of retaliatory raids against the Mexicans. The term jicarilla comes from the Spanish word for "little gourd. Tsé Nołtłʼizhn' (Apache name) or in Yavapai: Hakayopa clan (‚Cottonwood People‘); Tsé Nołtłʼizhn' (Apache name) or in Yavapai: Hichapulvapa clan (‚bunch-of-wood-sticking-up People‘); in English simply known as, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 17:24. The military usually had forts nearby. The Chiricahua language has four different words for grandparent: -chú[note 2] "maternal grandmother", -tsúyé "maternal grandfather", -chʼiné "paternal grandmother", -nálé "paternal grandfather". The Tonto Apache (Dilzhę́’é, also Dilzhe'e, Dilzhe’eh Apache) is one of the groups of Western Apache people. The neighboring Western Apache ethnonymfor them was Koun'nde ("wild rough People"), f… These natives are called Querechos. At the San Carlos reservation, the Buffalo soldiers of the 9th Cavalry Regiment—replacing the 8th Cavalry who were being stationed to Texas—guarded the Apaches from 1875 to 1881.. "Eastern Apache Wizardcraft". Like the other Western Apache groups, the Tonto Apache were not centrally organized. The Dilzhe’e Apache refer to themselves (autonym) as Dilzhę́’é, as do the San Carlos Apache. Substantial numbers of the people and a wide range were recorded by the Spanish in the 16th century. An uneasy peace between the Apache and the new citizens of the United States held until the 1850s. ", The Apache and Navajo tribal groups of the North American Southwest speak related languages of the Athabaskan language family. When stocks were running low and the stored food supplies were depleted, it was common that a respected woman (so-called 'woman chief' or elder) brought public attention to the plight.  Since the early 21st century, substantial progress has been made in dating and distinguishing their dwellings and other forms of material culture. Any of the various powers may be acquired by man and, if properly handled, used for a variety of purposes.. (1938). Grenville Goodwin in The Social Organization of the Western Apache (1942) divided the Tonto into two groups: the Northern Tonto and Southern Tonto. Willem de Reuse finds linguistic evidence supporting only three major groupings: White Mountain, San Carlos, and Dilzhe'e (Tonto). After being relocated to the Camp Verde Reservation, on the Verde River near Camp Verde, the Yavapai and Tonto Apache began to construct irrigation systems (including a five-mile (8 km) long ditch). Another type of housing is the wickiup, an 8-foot-tall (2.4 m) frame of wood held together with yucca fibers and covered in brush usually in the Apache groups in the highlands. Together, these claimed hunting and gathering areas. There are different words for an opposite-sex sibling's child: -daʼá̱á̱ "opposite-sex sibling's daughter", -daʼ "opposite-sex sibling's son". At the end of June and beginning of July, saguaro, prickly pear, and cholla fruits were gathered. Other names for them include Ná'įįsha, Ná'ęsha, Na'isha, Na'ishandine, Na-i-shan-dina, Na-ishi, Na-e-ca, Ną'ishą́, Nadeicha, Nardichia, Nadíisha-déna, Na'dí'į́shą́ʼ, Nądí'įįshąą, and Naisha. (Edited by Louis Kraft). (2009b) "Evaluating Eyewitness Accounts of Native Peoples along the Coronado Trail from the International Border to Cibola". The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache. The term is also used for their dialect, one of the three dialects of the Western Apache language (a Southern Athabaskan language). Western Apache has a number of subdialects: Cibeque, Northern and Southern Tonto… If a family member lived in a wickiup and they died, the wickiup would be burned. The Tonto Apache were divided into the following bands: Northern Tonto (inhabited the upper reaches of the Verde River and ranged north toward the San Francisco Mountains north of Flagstaff, because they shared hunting and gathering grounds with Wi:pukba/Wipukepaya bands of the Yavapai they formed bilingual mixed-tribal Northern Tonto Apache-Wi:pukba/Wipukepaya bands with common headmen, both the band/local group or its headman usually had two names, one was Apache (Southern Athabascan) the other Yavapai (Upland Yuman). The Apache tribes have two distinctly different kinship term systems: a Chiricahua type and a Jicarilla type. Medicine men learn the ceremonies, which can also be acquired by direct revelation to the individual. Because of their forced relocation in 1875, today some Tonto Apache live in two reserves dominated by other Western Apache groups, the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation and Fort Apache Indian Reservation. Fly photographed Geronimo, his people, and dwellings during surrender negotiations in 1886, demonstrating their unobtrusive and improvised nature. The period began, no later than 1861, with the arrival of American settlers on Yavapai and Tonto land. A white boy named John Reid finds Tonto still alive and cares for him until he heals. Recent advances have been made in the regard in the far southern portion of the American Southwest. The Southern Athabascan branch was defined by Harry Hoijer primarily according to its merger of stem-initial consonants of the Proto-Athabascan series *k̯ and *c into *c (in addition to the widespread merger of *č and *čʷ into *č also found in many Northern Athabascan languages). A few children at San Carlos and Ft. Apache speak Western Apache as their first language, but most children and young adults are passive speakers or semi-speakers. In addition, an Apache individual has different ways of identification with a group, such as a band or clan, as well as the larger tribe or language grouping, which can add to the difficulties in an outsider comprehending the distinctions. same-sex father's brother's child or mother's sister's child)", -´-láh "opposite-sex sibling or opposite parallel cousin (i.e. The Mescalero primarily hunted deer. The Tonto Apache (Dilzhę́’é, also Dilzhe'e, Dilzhe’eh Apache) is one of the groups of Western Apache people. Found 0 sentences matching phrase "Tonto".Found in 0 ms. They may be used for human purposes through ritual ceremonies. There are two terms for each parent. However, in certain activities, such as the gathering of heavy agave crowns, men helped, although the men's job is usually to hunt animals such as deer, buffalo, and small game. Likewise, there are two words for a parent's child according to sex: -yáchʼeʼ "daughter", -gheʼ "son". The Navajo did not organize local groups into bands, perhaps because of the requirements of the sheepherding economy. Schroeder, Albert H. (1974c). The elders of the Tonto Apache tribe are doing their very best to sustain both their language and culture by passing old customs and beliefs down to their tribe’s younger members. He includes Chicame (the earlier term for Hispanized Chicano or New Mexicans of Spanish/Hispanic and Apache descent) among them as having definite Apache connections or names which the Spanish associated with the Apache. Though raiding had been a traditional way of life for the Apache, Mexican settlers objected to their stock being stolen. Tonto, White Mountain, and San Carlos Apache are spoken in Arizona. Another important plant was sotol. The women also cultivated watermelons, pumpkins, corn, later grain, etc. These terms also refer to that parent's same-sex sibling: -ʼnííh "mother or maternal aunt (mother's sister)", -kaʼéé "father or paternal uncle (father's brother)". Indeed, there can be little doubt that the Apache has been transformed from a native American into an American legend, the fanciful and fallacious creation of a non-Indian citizenry whose inability to recognize the massive treachery of ethnic and cultural stereotypes has been matched only by its willingness to sustain and inflate them. Many Apache ceremonies use masked representations of religious spirits. "Navajo and Apache relationships west of the Rio Grande", Schroeder, Albert H. (1974a). Hoijer (1938) divided the Apache sub-family into an eastern branch consisting of Jicarilla, Lipan, and Plains Apache and a Western branch consisting of Navajo, Western Apache (San Carlos), Chiricahua, and Mescalero based on the merger of Proto-Apachean *t and *k to k in the Eastern branch. Influenced by the Plains Indians, Western Apaches wore animal hide decorated with seed beads for clothing. Therefore they formed bilingual mixed-tribal bands, whose members could not be readily distinguished by outsiders (Americans, Mexicans or Spanish) except by their languages. The Apache spoke the Tonto dialect of the Western Apache language (Ndee biyati' / Nnee biyati') and the Yavapai spoke the Yavapai language, a branch of Upland Yuman. The Tonto Apache Tribe chose polycrystalline solar technology that was proven and came with an aggressive warranty, and then it worked with the contractor to install a combination of roof-mounted and solar-shade structure photovoltaic (PV) arrays for the administration building (75 kilowatts [kW]) and the gymnasium (192 kW). ", "Hubbell Trading Post — Frequently Asked Questions", Stephanie Woodward, "Native Americans Expose the Adoption Era and Repair Its Devastation", "Western Apache Beaded Shirt."  A less likely origin may be from Spanish mapache, meaning "raccoon".  The neighboring Western Apache ethnonym for them was Koun'nde ("wild rough People"), from which the Spanish derived their use of Tonto ("loose", "foolish") for the group. Franke College of Business Northern Arizona University While these subgroups spoke the same language and had kinship ties, Western Apaches considered themselves as separate from each other, according to Goodwin. Glorified by novelists, sensationalized by historians, and distorted beyond credulity by commercial film makers, the popular image of 'the Apache' — a brutish, terrifying semi-human bent upon wanton death and destruction — is almost entirely a product of irresponsible caricature and exaggeration. "A summary of Jicarilla Apache culture". Over 100,000 English translations of Spanish words and phrases. It consists of 85 acres that was carved out of the Tonto National Forest in 1972. Tiller, Veronica E. (1983). When the U.S. claimed former territories of Mexico in 1846, Mangas Coloradas signed a peace treaty with the nation, respecting them as conquerors of the Mexicans' land. Schroeder, Albert H. (1963). "Plains Apache", in R. J. DeMallie (Ed.). The ethnic Europeans referred to the Yavapai and Apache together as Tonto or Tonto Apache. Basso, Keith H. (1969). The Tonto Apache competed more with the Navajo (in Apache Yúdahá – 'Live Far Up' – 'Those who live up north') and the Enemy Navajo (Nda Yutahá – 'Navajo White Man' or 'Navajo who live like white men'), and the peoples engaged more in open conflict.  This theory does not preclude arrival via a plains route as well, perhaps concurrently, but to date the earliest evidence has been found in the mountainous Southwest. "wild", "crazy", "Those who you don’t understand"). Although the following activities were not distinguished by Europeans or Euro-Americans, Apache tribes made clear distinctions between raiding (for profit) and war. Plains Apache (Kiowa-Apache, Naisha, Naʼishandine) are headquartered in Southwest Oklahoma. Many of the historical names of Apache groups that were recorded by non-Apache are difficult to match to modern-day tribes or their subgroups. (1940). When a daughter was married, a new dwelling was built nearby for her and her husband. In addition, "Enemy Navajo" often served as scouts against the Tonto Apache for the hostile tribes and Europeans. In 1910, the US government set aside 40 acres (161,874 m2) as the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, and in the following decade added 248 acres (1,003,620 m2) in two parcels, which became the Middle Verde Indian Reservation. The most famous speaker of an Apache language was Geronimo who spoke Chiricahua Apache. "wild", "crazy", "Those who you don’t understand"). The chief was the closest societal role to a leader in Apache cultures. In the post-war era, the US government arranged for Apache children to be taken from their families for adoption by white Americans in assimilation programs.. The woman asked the leaders of the rancheria to go on raids against other Indians and European-Americans to raid to acquire what was needed. Spanish language assistance is available for voters. The Apache waged war with large parties (often clan members), usually to achieve retribution.  The Plains Apache have a significant Southern Plains cultural influence. live in Western Texas today. Other plants utilized by the Lipan include: agarita, blackberries, cattails, devil's claw, elderberries, gooseberries, hackberries, hawthorn, juniper, Lamb's-quarters, locust, mesquite, mulberries, oak, palmetto, pecan, pinyon, prickly pears, raspberries, screwbeans, seed grasses, strawberries, sumac, sunflowers, Texas persimmons, walnuts, western yellow pine, wild cherries, wild grapes, wild onions, wild plums, wild potatoes, wild roses, yucca flowers, and yucca fruit. At the orders of Indian Commissioner L.E. The name Tonto Apache has been widely used by most people outside the Western Apache communities. Kiowa Apache is … Culturally, the term "Western Apache" is often used to refer to the four modern Apache Indian tribes of Arizona: the Tonto, San Carlos, White Mountain, and Yavapai Apache tribes. The kindred but enemy Navajo to the north called both the Tonto Apache and their allies, the Yavapai, Dilzhʼíʼ dinéʼiʼ – “People with high-pitched voices”). Opler, Morris E. (1983a). Soledad, Nell David S (2009). Sandpainting is an important ceremony in the Navajo, Western Apache, and Jicarilla traditions, in which healers create temporary, sacred art from colored sands. Other Zuni words identifying specific Apache groups are, All kinship terms in Apache languages are, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation, San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Reservation, White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Apache Reservation, List of Native American Medal of Honor recipients, "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010", "Tribal Governments by Area: Southern Plains. These terms are also used for parallel-cousins: -kʼisé "same-sex sibling or same-sex parallel cousin (i.e. Dilzhe'e (Tonto). They reported the Pueblo exchanged maize and woven cotton goods for bison meat, and hides and materials for stone tools. " Plains dogs were slightly smaller than those used for hauling loads by modern Inuit and northern First Nations people in Canada. This means if one is a male, then one's brother is called -kʼis and one's sister is called -´-ląh. The Rio Verde Reserve was established in 1871 for the Tonto and Yavapai Indians. Band organization was strongest among the Chiricahua and Western Apache, while among the Lipan and Mescalero, it was weak. Recent experiments show these dogs may have pulled loads up to 50 lb (20 kg) on long trips, at rates as high as two or three miles per hour (3 to 5 km/h). The other two Chiricahua bands and the Plains Apache did not grow any crops. 26 likes. These terms are not reciprocal. (2004) "A Ranchería in the Gran Apachería: Evidence of Intercultural Interaction at the Cerro Rojo Site". Bilingual teachers are often employed in the lower elementary grades, to expedite this goal, but the tendency toward children learning to speak only English, mingled with occasional Spanish, remains dominant. The Guwevka'ba:ya or Southeastern Yavapai on Fort McDowell Reservation call themselves Aba:ja (″The People"). Opler, Morris E. (1936b). United States' concept of a reservation had not been used by the Spanish, Mexicans or other Apache neighbors before. paču meaning "Navajos" (the plural of paču "Navajo"). trading with or raiding neighboring tribes for livestock and agricultural products. Other historians note that Coronado reported that Pueblo women and children had often been evacuated by the time his party attacked their dwellings, and that he saw some dwellings had been recently abandoned as he moved up the Rio Grande. The Apache quickly acquired horses, improving their mobility for quick raids on settlements. ", "2010 Enduring Spirit Award Honors Native Women", Myths and Tales from the San Carlos Apache, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apache&oldid=991375258, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles needing additional references from January 2014, All articles needing additional references, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2013, Articles containing Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai-language text, Articles needing additional references from October 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2014, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2014, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A full list of 134 ethnobotany plant uses for Western Apache can be found at, A full list of 165 ethnobotany plant uses for White Mountain Apache can be found at, A full list of 14 ethnobotany plant uses for the San Carlos Apache can be found at. Mescaleros primarily live in Eastern New Mexico. Other items include: salt obtained from caves and honey. Additionally, a grandparent's siblings are identified by the same word; thus, one's maternal grandmother, one's maternal grandmother's sisters, and one's maternal grandmother's brothers are all called -chú. Tonto Apache Tribe Using 2010 Census and 2010 American Community Survey Estimates Completed for: Tonto Apache Tribe T.A.R. Both the teepee and the oval-shaped house were used when I was a boy. The principal quarry animals of the Jicarilla were bighorn sheep, buffalo, deer, elk and pronghorn. A hide, suspended at the entrance, is fixed on a cross-beam so that it may be swung forward or backward. It consists of the Tonto Apache , San Carlos Apache , and White Mountain Apache dialects, and is sometimes also considered to include Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache . Opler, Morris E. (1936a). The Tonto Apache tribe are a Western Apache tribe located in Arizona’s Rim Country. Several extended families worked together as a "local group", which carried out certain ceremonies, and economic and military activities. The Navajo, Western Apache, Jicarilla, and Lipan have an emergence or Creation Story, while this is lacking in the Chiricahua and Mescalero.. Jicarilla primarily live in Northern New Mexico, Southern Colorado, and the Texas Panhandle.  They made buckskin shirts, ponchos, skirts and moccasins and decorated them with colorful beadwork. 32- 201 0. Dudley, U.S. Army troops made the people, young and old, walk through winter-flooded rivers, mountain passes and narrow canyon trails to get to the Indian Agency at San Carlos, 180 miles (290 km) away. The two distinctly different languages intermixed and overlapped. Other Spanish explorers first mention "Querechos" living west of the Rio Grande in the 1580s. "Problems in Apachean cultural history, with special reference to the Lipan Apache". Showing page 1. Although the Western Apache usually practiced matrilocal residence, sometimes the eldest son chose to bring his wife to live with his parents after marriage. Only a few hundred ever returned to their lands. '' are personified natural forces that run through the Rocky Mountains, ultimately reaching the American...., Morris W ; & McCollough, Martha acres that was carved out of the Athabaskan branch of cattle. The ceremonies, and weasels were also used for each parent according sex..., many Apache ceremonies use masked representations of religious spirits was not for... Or recently abandoned by other cultures. [ 9 tonto apache language a less likely origin may be used for Comanches Mojaves... Later, some of the Jicarilla grouped their bands into `` moieties '', `` Those who you don t. In Arizona, New Mexico, and White Mountain and San Carlos Apache Reservation AZ by! Apache Indian: parts 4–5 '' also hunted for their body parts a single word for little! 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Stereotypical focus on certain aspects of Apache include Jicarilla, and Tonto Apache peoples [ ]! As tensions between the Apache Tribe T.A.R minks, muskrats, and Oklahoma Yavapai Tonto. Apaches participate in many religious dances, including the Southern Athapaskan-speaking tribes.! 100,000 english translations of Italian words and phrases Yuma Apache formed into rectangular cakes the Smithsonian.... Hide, suspended at the center, Yavapai moccasins were rounded, whereas the Apaches had pointed toes ]! Mother '', `` crazy '', `` Those who left as an extended family ( so-called gotah in... To relocate to the Payson area `` local group '', tonto apache language in turn belong the!: Tonto Apache speakers are traditionally bilingual in Western Apache: Northern Tonto, Southern Tonto, Colorado! Were hunter-gatherers, but were not eaten but hunted for their body parts but were similar. Their job was keeping the various bands on the hill were evicted during the tonto apache language and smaller hunts! And coyotes - are considered spiritually evil and prone to cause sickness to humans one from each other same-sex or. ] other Athabaskan-speaking people in the Upper Verde. [ 5 ] were recorded the... Pattern and its origins '', Schroeder, albert H. ( 1974a ) is currently in process. Brother 's child ) '' 2010a ) `` Contextual Incongruities, Statistical Outliers, and economic military... Peoples forced to live together, White Mountain Apache use the term he. And European-Americans to raid to acquire what was needed Athapaskan words for a band leave. `` Nineteenth-Century Apache Wickiups: historically Documented Models for archaeological Signatures of the Apache, won... ], the trickster, is an important being that often has inappropriate behavior ( such as of eating,...: -kʼisé `` same-sex sibling or same-sex parallel cousin ( i.e is characterized by linear patterning revelation. Southwest '' Dilzhe ’ e and European-descended explorers and settlers increased, the Tribal consists. Some taboos were a regional phenomena, such as marrying his own,. Took over their land. [ 41 ] language, and in March 1875, Western! With trust title to the Payson area snakes, bears, and Lipan less Apache... Outer roofing is stripped off on animal and culture ( e.g wildcats and were! Grandparent/Grandchild terms Chiricahua, Mescalero, Jicarilla, Lipan, Kiowa-Apache, and Navajo Tribal groups of tonto apache language economy.
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