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taan fjord tsunami

The October 17th, 2015 Taan Fiord landslide and tsunami generated a runup of 193 m, nearly an order of magnitude greater than most previously surveyed tsunamis. Researchers employed a variety of instruments to conduct a ground-based tsunami runup survey, including a laser rangefinder, a total station, and two differential Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS systems. July 15, 2020. In Grönland löste ein Erdrutsch an der Westküste im Jahr 2017 eine über 90 Meter hohe Welle aus , die einen Großteil eines nahe gelegenen Fischerdorfes zerstörte und vier Menschen tötete. Am 17. A small volume of the total slide mass remains within the source area and is topped by striated blocks (> 10 m across) and standing trees that were transported down the slope in intact positions during the landslide. No one observed the slide or tsunami directly, but automatic seismic systems identified it within hours (using methods from Ekström and Stark 2013). 1992. Meigs, A., W. C. Krugh, K. Davis, and G. Bank. 180 Millionen Tonnen Gestein donnerten damals in einen Fjord. Using a variety of Digital Elevation Modeling (DEM) and imagery sources, the research team was able to estimate the landslide volume, document movement leading up to the event, and map the deposit thickness. The looming tsunami of Harriman Fjord 2018. In the last century, 10 of the 14 highest tsunamis in the world were in glaciated mountains and four were in Alaska parks, which include vast tracts of glaciated terrain (Table 1). Landslides doi:10.1007/s10346-017-0879-7 Sedimentary Geology 364:302-318. At least two sites (see Figure 1) along the fjord have fresh landslide deposits extending into the ocean, and a ridge opposite the 2015 slide is laced with fissures that may produce future failures. In Taan Fiord, currents swept across shallow areas and low hills, sometimes carrying icebergs that left gouges in the soil surface (Figure 3), or were left stranded far above the tide. Lituya Bay produced at least five giant tsunamis over the course of three centuries (Miller 1960) and Icy Bay could well rack up a similar record. The most dramatic hazard posed to vessels is the breaking tsunami wave in areas where the tsunami height is significant in comparison to the depth of the water. Slope failure at the terminus of Tyndall Glacier on 17 October 2015 sent 180 million tons of rock into Taan Fiord, Alaska. Unlike during the Lituya Bay tsunami -- during which three anchored boats were sunk by or rode atop a 100-foot wall of water -- no fisherman were in Taan Bay at the time of the slide. Assuming these trees were originally circular in cross-section, some must have lost at least 4 inches (10 cm) of wood to achieve the scoured shape we observed. In October 2015, a 76 M m 3 section of unstable rock from the Daisy tributary catchment collapsed into Taan Fjord and partially onto the terminus of Tyndall Glacier (Fig. Tyndall Glacier retreated at an increasing pace through the late 20th century until it stabilized in 1991, at approximately the location of the current terminus. Systematic field surveys of potential sources and remote analysis and monitoring of these sources for precursory movement could help identify likely landslide sites. Alaska’s parks could do a lot to be better prepared for future events like this, whether in Icy Bay or anywhere else where steep glaciated mountains rise above deep water. All 10 of the highest tsunami runups ever recorded were caused by this mechanism of a landslide entering a water body. Signs of active displacement are clearly visible in remote-sensed data extending back to the mid-1990s. Some 200 million metric tons of rock slid down the mountain in a crash that must have been deafening. ... a 2015 landslide at Taan Fjord … Lodge operators and visitors might have been warned of the risk; tsunami modeling likely could have accurately shown the impacts would be potentially severe within the fjord, but would only extend a short way into the main bay. (US Government Printing Office Washington, DC). The landslide flowed into Taan Fjord, triggering a localised tsunami that was detected 155 km away, according to the Lamont-Doherty press release. In the case of Taan Fjord, the result was a massive tsunami," said Dr Dan Shugar, assistant professor of Geoscience at the University of Washington Tacoma and co-author of the report. The quick detection of this event, the existence of high quality pre-event topographic data, … 2018). Geomorphology 5: 535–546. These deposits are distinctive in their character, up to 70 m thick, and we anticipate that other such deposits should be recognizable in other fjords. The careful documentation of the physical environment of the fjord before and after the landslide, combined with tsunami runup and flow directions, should make this a place where tsunami modelers can test their models to see if they work correctly. 180 Millionen Tonnen Gestein donnerten damals in einen Fjord. In Alaska stürzten 2015 am Taan Fjord enorme Gesteinsmassen ins Meer. Die Flutwelle scheint gewaltige Ausmaße gehabt zu haben. Scientists discover rare ‘alpine tsunami’ occurred after massive 2016 rockfall near Juneau, Juneau Empire 14 Feb 2018. On October 17, 2015, 180 million tons of rock slid into Taan Fiord, an arm of Icy Bay, generating a tsunami that stripped forest from 8 square miles (20 square km) of Wrangell St.-Elias National Park and Preserve and reached as high as 633 feet (193 m) above the … Initial estimates of the maximum tsunami run up were as high as 150 m using the Alaska IfSAR-derived DEM. These factors are likely driving an increase in the frequency of large landslides. Areas near stream deltas or other sediment sources might be buried by transported sediment. Because this is a recently deglaciated fjord with steep slopes and crossed by a major fault, one possibility was a landslide-generated tsunami. Journal of Geophysical Research 111 no. These collapsed fans left no clear deposit—presumably because they were incorporated into the moving submarine slide mass. Im Jahr 2017 löste ein Erdrutsch im Karrat-Fjord einen Tsunami aus, der vier Menschen tötete und die Stadt Nuugaatsiaq in Grönland zerstörte. Additionally, some consideration should be given to sediment transport: rip rap boulders could be carried by a tsunami, increasing damage and recovery costs. 2013. Ideally, new development in areas of potential tsunami inundation could be designed to maximize options for evacuation and minimize costs of reconstruction after an event. Mt. These results could then be compared to areas of infrastructure development, popular tourist destinations, and ship course data (e.g., from Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship-tracking systems) to identify areas of particular vulnerability. The 2015 Taan Fjord tsunami was generated by a 99 million cubic yards (76 million cubic meters) landslide that occurred following retreat of the Tyndall Glacier. In contrast, one small island that used to support supra-tidal vegetation was scoured down such that now it is only a shoal emerging at low tide (location marked on Figure 5). Wiles, G. C. and P. E. Calkin. Coastal Features, Glaciers, Alaska. Global Historical Tsunami Database. Additionally, glacial retreat is exposing new bodies of water that may be vulnerable to tsunamis. The location shown here is near the mid-length of Taan Fiord, where the survey team set up their primary base camp. Precursory deformation began decades before failure, and the event left a distinct sedimentary record, showing that geologic evidence can help understand past occurrences of similar events, and might provide forewarning. 2018). The tsunami was triggered by a landslide on October 17, 2015, at the head of the fjord. Want more? Haeussler, P. J., S. P. S. Gulick, N. McCall, M. Walton, R. Reece, C. Larsen, D. H. Shugar, M. Geertsema, J. G. Venditti, and K. Labay. The degree of destruction increased away from the limit of inundation, areas 60 feet (20 m) below that limit were typically so hard-hit that only a few torn roots and soil remnants remained, while trees near the limit were often toppled but still rooted. The Taan Fiord tsunami was preceded by a century of rapid glacial retreat (Koppes and Hallet 2006), decades of ground cracking and creep (Meigs et al. Much of the landslide material was deposited on the Tyndall Glacier and into the fjord. Numerical simulation of the Taan Fiord tsunami, showing the height of the moving water above the tide level. Der Felsabbruch im Jahr 2015 mit folgendem Tsunami in der Icy Bay Urheberrecht: A. Dufresne Abbildung 1. 2018, Gullufsen 2018). Giant waves in lituya bay, Alaska. The Taan Fiord event could have been anticipated based on decades of precursory movement that preceded catastrophic failure, had such analysis been conducted prior to the failure. Klaus Taschwer . Though logging along its shore has ended, plans for a large-scale mine are being explored, potentially creating another vulnerable facility. We are able to calculate the volume of the landslide and the volume that entered the fjord. After crossing the toe of Tyndall Glacier and entering the water, it generated a violent wave that flattened about eight square miles (20 km2) of forest in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve and adjacent private lands (Figure 1). 2018. Large landslides are on the increase in southeast Alaska (Coe et al. Tyndall Glacier, Taan Fjord Mega-Tsunami. 2017. In Alaska, four giant tsunamis have been triggered by subaerial landslides in the past century: in Lituya Bay in 1938 and 1958 (Miller 1960); in Grewingk Lake in 1967 (Wiles and Calkin 1992); and in Taan Fiord in 2015 (Higman et al. In October 2015, a massive landslide slid into Taan Fjord and created a tsunami in excess of 600 feet. And in 2015, a landslide-generated tsunami in the Taan Fjord in Icy Bay, Alaska, caused a 300-metre run-up of water, says Synolakis. Oktober 2015 kamen 180 Millionen Tonnen Fels plötzlich ins Rutschen. A century ago, Icy Bay was filled with glaciers (Russel 1893). Koppes, M. and B. Hallet. Check out this article and video. The tsunami moved boulders up to 16 feet (5 m) in diameter where it was largest (Figure 3). Runup of nearly 650 feet (200 m) shows that the Taan Fiord tsunami was likely about 300 feet (100 m) in height, and complex variability in the peak runup shows the wave had a very short period. "Oct. 17, 2015, Taan Fjord, Icy Bay, Alaska. In jüngerer Zeit löste ein Erdrutsch im Jahr 2015 im Taan-Fjord in einem abgelegenen Gebiet westlich von Yakutat, Alaska, einen Tsunami aus, der mehr als 200 Meter hoch war. Ekström, G. and C. P. Stark. Bourgeois, J. Ultra-rapid landscape response and sediment yield following glacier retreat Icy Bay, southern Alaska. Tree trunks that remained standing after the tsunami were scoured by strong sediment-laden currents that sometimes severely abraded the upstream side of trees, leaving them peppered with small rocks (Figure 3). Two-and-one-half-miles (4 km) farther, on a section of the west coast of Icy Bay that faces directly toward the mouth of Taan Fiord, the wave reached 36 feet (11 m) and toppled trees, but quickly diminished to below high tide as it spread out along the coast (Figure 2). At Taan Fjord in 2015, a landslide caused a tsunami that crested at 600 feet. The October 17th, 2015 Taan Fiord landslide and tsunami generated a runup of 193 m, nearly an order of magnitude greater than most previously surveyed tsunamis. F2. Research results will provide critical insight into the processes of a landslide-triggered tsunamis and a benchmark for modeling landslide and tsunami hazards that may prove an indispensable tool in a warming climate. The evacuated subaerial landslide area and runout are visible to the left of the fjord head. In October 2015, a massive landslide slid into Taan Fjord and created a tsunami in excess of 600 feet. Science 339: 1416–1419. They happen quickly and pose a threat to anything and everything in their path. CoastView. The Icy Bay landslide in Alaska. A few sites showed that hills can provide significant protection from the worst tsunami impacts. More recently, a 2015 landslide near Alaska’s Taan Glacier produced a 633 feet (193 meter) wave in Taan Fjord that smashed into the opposite wall of the glacial valley. Deforestation of the slopes above Taan Fiord demonstrates the destructive power of the tsunami (Figure 3). Der Tsunami wälzte sich bis in die eigentliche Bucht und rasierte auf seinem Weg das mit Tannen bestandene Ufer kahl. The colors on the tsunami indicate the speed, with the reds indicating tsunami flow speeds of 30 m/s (~65 mph). Dieser Tsunami war wahrscheinlich durch den Chicxulub-Impakt vor 66 Millionen Jahren verursacht worden. Higman, Bretwood, Dan H. Shugar, Colin P. Stark, Göran Ekström, Michele N. Koppes, Patrick Lynett, Anja Dufresne et al. “Earlier, we … Even where the wave is not breaking, tsunamis can generate strong currents. Tsunami-inducing landslides are rare but have occurred in Alaska and elsewhere. Having detected the Tyndall Glacier landslide, Stark and Ekstrom located it with a very high resolution satellite image, which Lamont-Doherty have included in their press release : The events at Grewingk Lake, Taan Fiord, and a 2016 landslide tsunami in Cowee Creek near Juneau all occurred in bodies of water that didn’t exist (because their basins were filled with ice) only a few decades before. Slope failure at the terminus of Tyndall Glacier on 17 October 2015 sent 180 million tons of rock into Taan Fiord, Alaska. In most places, the forest was destroyed by the passing wave. The glacier is named after the Tlingit native word for "Sea Lion". The impact of the slide with the water generated one of the tallest tsunami waves in historical times. On October 17th, 2015 a landslide adjacent to the tidewater Tyndall Glacier, located at the head of Taan Fjord in Alaska's Icy Bay, generated a massive tsunami that inundated and modified several large stream deltas within the fjord. Flow indicators from satellite imagery suggest that the maximum tsunami runup immediately adjacent to … In some areas where there was abundant loose sediment, deposits of everything from boulders to sand were so thick that they raised ground elevations by over 16 feet (5 m). However, no such preparation was conducted and it’s urgent that we learn from the 2015 event and take steps to assess and mitigate hazards in Icy Bay and elsewhere before another event happens. 2018. See more pictures of Tyndall Glacier here: Go to Tyndall Glacier. Der Erdrutsch ihm Taan Fjord (einem Seitenarm des von Touristen oft besuchtem ‘Icy Bay’) verlief nicht viel anders. Climate Change. The landslide flowed into Taan Fjord, triggering a localised tsunami that was detected 155 km away, according to the Lamont-Doherty press release. Ground Truth Trekking, licensed under CC BY 3.0. It hit the ocean, sending up a wave that peaked at nearly 600 feet high. Oktober 2015 landete ein Erdrutsch von rund 180 Millionen Tonnen Gestein auf der Zehe des Tyndall Glacier und im Wasser des Taan Fjords. Geertsema, M. 2012. These impacts in Taan Fiord show that development should be sited outside areas of anticipated inundation, and evacuation routes are needed so that anyone within the flood zone can effectively flee. Landsat 8 image of Taan Fiord acquired in 2016. Our field observations provide a benchmark for modeling landslide and tsunami hazards. Part of the debris traversed the width of the fjord and re-emerged onto land, depositing coherent hummocks with preserved source stratigraphy on an alluvial fan and adjacent moraines on the far side of the fjord. Submarine deposition of a subaerial landslide in Taan Fjord, Alaska. Rapid retreat of glacial ice from Taan Fiord, Alaska over the last 50 years, combined with the presence of local faulting, likely contributed to the massive October 17th, 2015 landslide near the head of the fjord that induced a tsunami with maximum runup of 193 m (Dufresne et al., 2018; Higman et al., 2018). Climate warming is likely driving an increase in the frequency of large landslides and promoting the growth of deep bodies of water where large tsunamis can form. On October 17th, 2015, the largest landslide in North America in decades occurred in Taan Fjord, an arm of southeast Alaska's Icy Bay. The location shown here is near the mid-length of Taan Fiord, where the survey team set up their primary base camp. USGS scientists investigate trees knocked over by the tsunami at the mouth of Taan Fjord, Alaska. Furthermore, at higher elevations and in arctic and subarctic climates, permafrost is a significant contributor to the strength of some mountains, and thawing, or even warming of still-frozen permafrost, can greatly weaken those mountains. The landslide began as a rotational slide, likely following planes of weakness established decades earlier when failure initiated shortly after glacial retreat. 2012). VIDEO: Camp Bay, velocity. These tsunamis may reach several hundred meters above the water, but affect a much smaller area than their long-period cousins. It wasn’t until the 1960s that four steep-walled fjords began to open at the head of the bay. Direkt neben dem Tyndall-Gletscher stürzten sie in die Tiefe und verdrängten abrupt das Wasser im Tal, wodurch sich eine gewaltige Flutwelle bildete. Alaska Park Science 18(1):6-15. The Tsunami Generated by the October 17th, 2015 Taan Fjord Landslide Patrick Lynett, Robert Weiss, Andrew Mattox, Vassilios Skanavis, Bretwood Higman, Adam Keen, Hui Tang, Colin Stark, Aykut Ayca Photo property of Bjørn Olson. Numerous landslides and at least two smaller landslide tsunamis have occurred in Alaska recent years (e.g., Geertsema 2012, Coe et al. Natur Forscher rekonstruieren Mega-Tsunami, der sich 2015 in Alaska ereignete. 2:55-3:10 New experiments on landslide tsunami on a conical island - Giorgio Bellotti 3:10-3:35 Break 3:35-3:55 The Tsunami Generated by the October 17, 2015 Taan Fjord Landslide - Pat Lynett 3:55-4:20 Model descriptions and results: Globouss and BoussClaw - Finn Lovholt Imagery from before the landslide shows that the catastrophic slope failure was preceded by deformation and sliding for at least the two decades since the glacier retreated to its current terminus location, exposing steep and extensively faulted slopes. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface 123(10): 2443-2463. Land-slides that generate large tsunamis most often happen in landscapes with retreating glaciers. Am gegenüberliegenden Hang schlug sie 193 Meter empor. Am 17. The Sea 15: 53–91. No one heard the mountainside fall into the fjord on … The wave affected the entire length of the fjord. [1] On 9 July 1958, a 7.8 M w strike-slip earthquake in southeast Alaska caused 90 million tonnes of rock and ice to drop into the deep water at the head of Lituya Bay. Ground Truth Trekking, licensed under CC BY 3.0 . It caused a tsunami that inundated an area over 20 km2, whereas the landslide debris itself deposited within a much smaller area of approximately 2 km2. 11. Glacial landslides, or glacial detachments, are a phenomenon of a warming planet. An 800 foot (250 m) diameter hill that was surrounded but not overtopped by the tsunami had runups of over 160 feet (50 m) where the tsunami directly impacted it, but less than 65 feet (20 m) on the lee side (Figure 5). This landslide-generated tsunami had a maximum height of over 600 feet. 2018). In 2015 rutsche dort innerhalb von wenigen Minuten nach einem kleinem Erdbeben eine riesige Erdmasse ins Icy Bay (St. Elias Wrangell Mountain National Park) ab. 2019. These events are rare; most occurred more than 60 years ago, and the physical environment before and after the landslide are generally not well documented. The event was detected within hours through automated seismological techniques, which also estimated the mass and direction of the slide - all of which were later confirmed by remote sensing. Inversion of long-period waves arriving at nearby seismometers identified the general area and direction of the landslide. Multibeam sonar and sub-bottom profiling show blocky deposits capped by more homogenous layered deposits filling the fjord bottom (Haeussler et al. 2018. in The First Meeting of International Consortium of Landslides Cold Region Landslides Network, Harbin, China 49–54. Recent papers take a detailed look at the events leading up to and during one of the most massive landslide and tsunamis ever recorded. 2018), and as glaciers continue to migrate landwards, water bodies such as fjords and lakes will also grow landward toward steep, recently deglaciated terrain, increasing the potential for more landslides, more “direct hits” into water, and therefore more, and possibly larger landslide-generated tsunamis. "If it was September or any time in the summer, the wave could have gotten a fishing boat or two," Larsen said. The Journal of Geology 1: 3. “In Taan Fiord (Icy Bay, Alaska), a landslide that began moving slowly decades ago suddenly failed in October 2015. Recent papers take a detailed look at the events leading up to and during one of the most massive landslide and tsunamis ever recorded. The 2015 landslide and tsunami in Taan Fiord, Alaska. Photo: Ground Truth Alaska (CC BY-NC 3.0) Responding to this May’s warning, Chugach National Forest officials advised the public to avoid the famously scenic Harriman Fiord, a staple for recreation and tourism activity that provides revenue across south-central Alaska. The wave traveled down the fjord, dislocating sediment and … The Lituya slide, though very large, came to rest some 6 miles (10 km) from tidewater. Geologic effects and records of tsunamis. Courtesy of Ground Truth Trekking However, most of the slide mass sped across the shoreline and terminus of Tyndall Glacier and entered Taan Fiord. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. Geophysical Research Letters 44: 7276–7284. To date, most post-tsunami surveys are from earthquake-generated tsunamis and the geomorphic signatures of landslide tsunamis or their potential for preservation are largely uncharacterized. Figure 4 shows the 2012 Hubbard and Lituya landslides (Geertsema 2012). In October 2015, a massive landslide slid into Taan Fjord and created a tsunami in excess of 600 feet. 50 m on the opposite shore of the fjord. See this video that describes the landslide and tsunami and the coordinated research that investigated it. Piles of earth and rock following the 2015 Taan Fjord landslide and tsunami. For the readers reference, the force exerted on a object submerged in water moving at 65 mph is the same as the force felt by that object with wind blowing at 2,000 mph. At the same time, glaciers fill the valley, preventing failure of lower slopes and supporting higher slopes to reduce the chance of slope collapse. The Taan Fiord event provides warning that Icy Bay may see similar, potentially more deadly events in the future. The 2015 landslide and tsunami reshaped the landscape at the terminus of Tyndall Glacier. Forscher rekonstruieren Mega-Tsunami, der sich 2015 in Alaska ereignete. Die daraus resultierende Welle war bis zu 193 Meter hoch The October 17th, 2015 Taan Fiord landslide and tsunami generated a runup of 193 m, nearly an order of magnitude greater than most previously surveyed tsunamis. The Taan Fiord tsunami can help us understand subaerial landslide tsunami hazards and prepare for potential impacts. Our results call attention to an indirect effect of climate change that is increasing the frequency and magnitude of natural hazards near glaciated mountains. Both of these events thankfully occurred in sparsely populated areas, so few fatalities occurred. The person in the photo is standing about 190 m above the fjord level, just below the limit of inundation (near the point marked with 193 m runup in Fig. They can impact areas as large as entire ocean basins, but with shorter runups (they run up from the coast to lower elevations), as happened with the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, and the Tohoku, Japan tsunami in 2011. 2017). Taan Fjord is a long, and narrow fjord created by the retreat of the Tyndall glacier over the past 50 years The fjord is ~ 15 km in length, with depths to ~180 m The coastline along Taan is a mix of glacial moraines, alluvial fans, dense brush, and steep, barren slopes. English: Changes in Taan Fiord. Inverse and forward modeling can provide the framework of a detailed understanding of the geologic and hazards implications of similar events. Like all tsunami waves, it would also be prone to breaking in shallow water. When the tsunami occurred in October 2015, workers were present in Icy Bay Lodge just 20 miles (32 km) away, fortunately beyond damaging waves. However, due to the differences outlined above, it is unclear how much of this work can be directly applied to tsunamis from subaerial landslides. 2018. 2018). Climate change has increased the risk of a huge landslide in an Alaskan fjord that could cause a catastrophic tsunami, scientists said Thursday. A giant boulder moved by the tsunami that ran down Taan Fiord in 2015. Malaspina Glacier. Initial observations of the 11 June 2012 rock/ice avalanche, Lituya mountain, Alaska. Presumably what little sediment was available in these areas was transported offshore. The articles call attention to the increasing frequency and magnitude of natural hazards near glaciated mountains and attributes these incidents, indirectly, to climate change. Much of the landslide material was deposited on the Tyndall Glacier and into the fjord. Ground Truth Trekking, licensed under CC BY 3.0. 2006. The 2015 landslide and tsunami reshaped the landscape at the terminus of Tyndall Glacier. A very nice video has been posted on Youtube describing the link between the giant Icy Bay landslide in Alaska in 2015 (this landslide is also variously known as the Taan Fjord landslide and the Tyndall Glacier landslide), which is the largest known recent landslide in North America, and the melting of the adjacent glacier. Most of the research on tsunami impacts has focused on longer-period regional tsunamis—especially subduction zone earthquake tsunamis that produce some of the longest period waves. September 2018, 08:00 57 Postings. In addition to the complete destruction in the path of the slide, the 2015 Taan Fiord landslide reshaped the fjord bottom and far shoreline. And in 2017, a landslide in Greenland produced a tsunami that roared into a small, isolated community. Current velocity validation using natural indicators of previous tsunami flow, or using direct observations of tsunamis, are badly needed. As it moved down the fjord, the wave stripped vegetation to varying heights that gradually diminished down-fjord. The black arrows show only the direction of the moving water; together with the color the viewer is able to see both the magnitude and direction of the tsunami flow. 2018. Glacial retreat in recent decades has exposed unstable slopes and allowed deep water to extend beneath some of those slopes. The rapid retreat of the glacier destabilized the steep slopes of the surrounding mountains and a massive landslide occurred on October 17, 2015. Taan Fjord is remote, but the Tidal Fjord in tourist-heavy Glacier Bay, Alaska, saw a landslide in June 2016. The colors on the tsunami indicate the height, with the reds indicating tsunami crest elevations of 40 m (130 ft) above the tide and the dark blues showing tsunami trough depressions of 20 m (65 ft) below the tide level. Note how the tsunami is strongly influenced by the topography, with large changes in run-up elevations over short distances. Available at: https://www.juneauempire.com/news/scientists-discover-rare-alpine-tsunami-occurred-after-massive-2016-rockfall-near-juneau/ (accessed May 14, 2019)

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