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gamma iron crystal structure

It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. At 910 °C… Mcq Added by: Muhammad Bilal Khattak. However, as it cools to 771 °C (1044K or 1420 °F),[5], the Curie temperature (TC or A2), it becomes ferromagnetic. An alternate stable form, if it exists, may appear at pressures of at least 50 GPa and temperatures of at least 1,500 K; it has been thought to have an orthorhombic or a double hcp structure. The phases of iron at atmospheric pressure are important because of the differences in solubility of carbon, forming different types of steel. Cancel Unsubscribe. At high cooling rates, the material will transform from austenite to martensite which is much harder and will generate cracks at much lower strains. Calculating density of a crystal structure; Contributors; ZnS has a unique structure type compared to other molecules, having different types of unique structures. The most common manner is to refer to the size and shape of the unit cell and the positions of the atoms (or ions) within the cell. [10] When the grains of austenite form in cementite, they occur as lamellar clusters oriented along the cementite crystal layer surface. α-Fe can be subjected to pressures up to ca. Like the alpha phase, the gamma phase is ductile and soft. Load-matching circuits may be needed to vary the impedance in the induction power source to compensate for the change.[14]. Mcq Added by: Muhammad Bilal Khattak. [11][12] The maximum solubility is about 0.02 wt% at 727 °C (1,341 °F) and 0.001% carbon at 0 °C (32 °F). For some irons, iron-based metals, and steels, the presence of carbides may occur or be present during the austenitization step. It is the allotropy of iron that allows for these crystal structures to change with temperature. At atmospheric pressure, three allotropic forms of iron exist: alpha iron (α-Fe), gamma iron (γ-Fe), and delta iron (δ-Fe). Rapid cooling of steel by quenching from the austenitic temperature range produces crystallographic transformation to the meta-stable hard phase , martensite . The crystal structure of gamma iron is_____? Austenite is only stable above 910 °C (1,670 °F) in bulk metal form. Polyhedron 1995 , … The ratio of density in gamma - form to that in beta - form is : Metallic, non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron, with an alloying element, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Quenching and tempering of welded carbon steel tubulars", "The Strain-Hardening Behavior of Partially Austenitized and the Austempered Ductile Irons with Dual Matrix Structures", "Effect of austenitization on austempering of copper alloyed ductile iron", "Effect of rolling strain on transformation induced plasticity of austenite to martensite in a high-alloy austenitic steel", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Austenite&oldid=988263637, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 November 2020, at 03:08. The amount of α-Fe depends on the cooling process. Pure Iron. In the extreme case of austenitic stainless steel, much higher alloy content makes this structure stable even at room temperature. Question is ⇒ The crystal structure of gamma iron is, Options are ⇒ (A) body centred cubic, (B) face centred cubic, (C) hexagonal close packed, (D) cubic structure, (E) orthorhombic crystal., Leave your comments or Download question paper. Engineering Materials Engineering Materials. Adding some elements, such as Chromium, narrows the temperature range for the gamma phase, while others increase the temperature range of the gamma phase. BCC stands for Body Centred Cubic structure in which there is an iron atom present in the center of a unit cell and at each corner of the cell. Austenite has face centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure and ferrite has body centered cubic (BCC) crystal structure. Material Edit Austenitization means to heat the iron, iron-based metal, or steel to a temperature at which it changes crystal structure from … satyendra; February 10, 2016; 3 Comments ; alpha iron, austenite, delta iron, Ferrite, gamma iron, Pure iron, steel, wrought iron, Pure Iron. This γ form of carbon saturation is exhibited in stainless steel. It has a melting point of 1538 deg C and boiling point of 2862 deg C. Alpha Ferrite can only dissolve up to 0.02 percent of Carbon at 727 degree Celcius. All Fe–Fe bond lengths are 2.58 Å. Austenite, also known as gamma-phase iron (γ-Fe), is a non-magnetic face-centered cubic structure phase of iron. In many magnetic ferrous alloys, the Curie point, the temperature at which magnetic materials cease to behave magnetically, occurs at nearly the same temperature as the austenite transformation. Austenite. Some controversial experimental evidence suggests the existence of a fifth high-pressure form that is stable at very high pressures and temperatures.[1]. 1 Questions & Answers Place. [7] A higher austenitization temperature can produce a higher carbon content in austenite, whereas a lower temperature produces a more uniform distribution of austempered structure. The iron existing between 768°C to 910°C, i.e., α-Fe paramagnetic is sometimes called beta-iron. [12] The epitaxial growth of austenite on the diamond (100) face is feasible because of the close lattice match and the symmetry of the diamond (100) face is fcc. Oxidation or corrosion resistance is provided by elements such as aluminium and chromium. α-Fe can be subjected to pressures up to ca. The A2 forms the boundary between the beta iron and alpha fields in the phase diagram in Figure 1. This gamma form of iron is present in the most commonly used type of stainless steel [citation needed] for making hospital and food-service equipment. Austenite. [2][3][4] The outer core surrounding the solid inner core is believed to be composed of liquid iron mixed with nickel and trace amounts of lighter elements. Austenite has face centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure and ferrite has body centered cubic (BCC) crystal structure. Since bainite and pearlite each contain α-Fe as a component, any iron-carbon alloy will contain some amount of α-Fe if it is allowed to reach equilibrium at room temperature. It is the allotropy of iron that allows for these crystal structures to change with temperature. The alpha iron (α-Fe) is a body-centered cubic (BCC) and the gamma iron (γ-Fe) is a face-centered cubic (FCC). The crystal structure of the iron oxide gamma-Fe2O3 is usually reported in either the cubic system (space group P4332) with partial Fe vacancy disorder or in the tetragonal system (space group P41212) with full site ordering and c/a\\approx 3. Alpha iron is an allotrope of iron with a body-centered cubic (BCC) crystalline structure. More than a monolayer of γ-iron can be grown because the critical thickness for the strained multilayer is greater than a monolayer. 2.2 (b). delta iron: [noun] an iron that is stable between 1400° C and the melting point and is characterized by a body-centered cubic crystal structure — compare gamma iron. However, this information is sometimes insufficient to allow for an understanding of the true structure in three dimensions. As austenite cools, the carbon diffuses out of the austenite and forms carbon rich iron-carbide (cementite) and leaves behind carbon poor ferrite. It is structurally stable below 910°C (1,670°F) and highly irregular after this upper temperature boundary. in gamma-iron, austenite. A WITec confocal Raman microscope CRM alpha 300 equipped with a solid-state laser (λ = 532 nm) and a CCD camera was applied to determine the crystal structure of non-treated and gamma-treated olivine (= forsterite) and indirectly applied to determine the chemical composition through the analysis of magnesium/iron oxide linkage and silicate groups. Gamma iron is an allotropic form of iron existing between the temperature 1670°F and 2550°F (910°C and 1400°C) and having a face-centered cubic lattice. "Gamma loop" redirects here. An incomplete initial austenitization can leave undissolved carbides in the matrix. Next, by conducting a thorough study of various initial spin configurations of this β-NiOOH structure, we found that a low-spin d7 Ni3+ configuration is always … No. Antiferromagnetism in alloys of epsilon-Fe with Mn, Os and Ru has been observed.[17]. In this form it is called gamma iron (γ-Fe) or Austenite. It is a ferromagnetic material that generates magnetic properties due to its crystalline nature. The delta-ferrite remains stable until it melts at 1538 °C. It is thermodynamically stable and fairly soft metal. This is because of the configuration of the iron lattice which forms a BCC crystal structure. Gamma iron is an allotropic form of iron existing between the temperature 1670°F and 2550°F (910°C and 1400°C) and having a face-centered cubic lattice. Crystal structures of meso-tetraphenylporphyrinatotin(IV) difluoride and dinitrate, and the correlation of spectroscopic data with core size for TIN(IV) porphyrin complexes. The structure is called a defect cubic spinel structure with vacancies on Al (III) positions. Each unit cell contains 32 oxygen and 64/3 Al (III) to fulfill stoichiometry. In the visible spectrum, this glow increases in brightness as temperature increases, and when cherry-red the glow is near its lowest intensity and may not be visible in ambient light. Figure 1. You could also do it yourself at any point in time. This is because of the configuration of the iron lattice which forms a BCC crystal structure. In this context, the color of light, or "blackbody radiation," emitted by the workpiece is an approximate gauge of temperature. The Curie change is not regarded as an allotropic transformation as there is no change in either the crystal structure or lattice parameter. The Steel Section of the Iron - Carbon Diagram. However, austenite can dissolve over 2% more carbon than alpha iron. [6], By changing the temperature for austenitization, the austempering process can yield different and desired microstructures. The α + γ phase field is, technically, the β + γ field above the A2. Crystal Structure of Gamma Ferric Oxide 30. This is because of the configuration of the iron lattice which forms a BCC crystal structure. The addition of carbon to iron, as in the case of steel, causes alterations to the crystal structure by the imposition of carbon atoms into the gaps between iron atoms; e.g. At the eutectoid point 0.83% Carbon, Austenite which is in a solid solution changes directly into a solid known as Pearlite which is a layered structure consisting of … If a low-hardenability steel is quenched, a significant amount of austenite will be retained in the microstructure, leaving the steel with internal stresses that leave the product prone to sudden fracture. This means that 6 iron atoms form a hexagon with a 7th iron atom in the center, these will stack on top of each other. γ-iron can dissolve considerably more carbon (as much as 2.04% by mass at 1,146 °C).This γ form of carbon saturation is exhibited in stainless steel.. To install click the Add extension button. This same trend appears for ruthenium but not osmium. Iron allotropes, showing the differences in lattice structure. Ambient pressure of 1 atm is approximately 1.01 bar. 3) Gamma Iron and it's Austenitic solid solutions are also soft and plastic - Softer even than Alpha Iron. PLEASE COMMENT BELOW WITH CORRECT ANSWER AND … Delta iron, characterized by a body-centred cubic crystal structure, is stable above a temperature of 1,390 °C (2,534 °F).Below this temperature there is a transition to gamma iron, which has a face-centred cubic (or cubic close-packed) structure and is paramagnetic (capable of being only… For greater pressures, published data (as of 2007) put the γ-ε-liquid triple point at pressures that differ by tens of gigapascals and 1000 K in the melting point. Gamma iron exists at the temperatures between these two ranges. It is a metallic, non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron with an alloying element. Adding Gamma loop additives keeps the iron in a body-centered cubic structure and prevents the steel from suffering phase transition to other solid states.[21]. The volume change (martensite is less dense than austenite)[9] can generate stresses as well. The crystal structure of gamma iron is_____? The addition of certain alloying elements, such as manganese and nickel, can stabilize the austenitic structure, facilitating heat-treatment of low-alloy steels. Depending on alloy composition, a layering of ferrite and cementite, called pearlite, may form. Copper and tin. Austenite, also known as gamma phase iron is a metallic non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron, with an alloying element.In plain-carbon steel, austenite exists above the critical eutectoid temperature of 1,000 K (1,340 °F); other alloys of steel have different eutectoid temperatures. It's BCC at temperatures up to 1,670 degrees F. But from 1,670 to 2,535 degrees F, it's FCC. Calculate the diffusion coefficient in units of m2/s for carbon atoms in FCC (gamma) iron at 1250 degrees C. View Answer. The phase of a metal refers to the peculiar crystalline structure of the atoms. By alloying the steel with tungsten, the carbon diffusion is slowed and the transformation to BCT allotrope occurs at lower temperatures, thereby avoiding the cracking. 2.6 illustrates one such interstitial space-octahedral void-in which carbon atom sits. [10] This austenisation of white iron occurs in primary cementite at the interphase boundary with ferrite. It is structurally stable below 910°C (1,670°F) and highly irregular after this upper temperature boundary. The high-frequency alternating magnetic field of induction heating heats the steel by two mechanisms below the Curie temperature: resistance or Joule (I2R) heating and ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. (5) Preparation of Magnetite 46. β-Fe and the A2 critical temperature are important in induction heating of steel, such as for surface-hardening heat treatments. Cementite contains 6.67 to 6.69 percent carbon and can combine with ferrite to form pearlite. This behavior is attributed to the paramagnetic nature of austenite, while both martensite[13] and ferrite[14][15] are strongly ferromagnetic. From 912 to 1,394 °C (1,674 to 2,541 °F) alpha iron undergoes a phase transition from body-centred cubic (BCC) to the face-centred cubic (FCC) configuration of gamma iron, also called austenite. Comment * Related Questions on Engineering Materials. Would you like Wikipedia to always look as professional and up-to-date? Regions with mixtures of two phases (such as ferrite + cementite, austenite + cementite, and ferrite + austenite) are found between the single-phase fields. Therefore, blacksmiths usually austenitize steel in low-light conditions, to help accurately judge the color of the glow. Therefore, ambient pressure is essentially the leftmost pressure value on this figure. Then from 2,535 to the melting temperature of 2,795 degrees F, it goes back to BCC. D. None of these. In this form it is called gamma iron (γ-Fe) or Austenite. Mild steel (carbon steel with up to about 0.2 wt% C) consist mostly of α-Fe and increasing amounts of cementite (Fe3C, an iron carbide). [1] In plain-carbon steel, austenite exists above the critical eutectoid temperature of 1000 K (727 °C); other alloys of steel have different eutectoid temperatures. Above the A2, the hysteresis mechanism disappears and the required amount of energy per degree of temperature increase is substantially larger than below A2. I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like. Another name for ferrite is alpha iron. An incomplete initial austenitization can leave undissolved carbides in the matrix. Electronic structure of gamma-iron C. Paduani al*, E.G. This is why steel is often taken heated into it's Austenetic region prior to mechanical working. Using DFT+U calculations, we first identify a β-NiOOH structure with a staggered arrangement of intercalated protons that is more consistent with experimental crystal structures of β-NiOOH than previously proposed geometries. Point Group: n.d. In this form it is called gamma iron (γ-Fe) or Austenite. [7][8] However, this terminology is obsolete and misleading, since as iron passes below the Curie temperature, the magnetic domains become aligned, but no structural change occurs. (4) Lithium Carbonate 46. The mixture adopts a laminar structure called pearlite. For iron, alpha iron undergoes a phase transition from 912 to 1,394 °C (1,674 to 2,541 °F) from the body-centered cubic crystal lattice (BCC) to the face-centered cubic crystal lattice (FCC), which is austenite or gamma iron. For iron, alpha iron undergoes a phase transition from 912 to 1,394 °C (1,674 to 2,541 °F) from the body-centered cubic crystal lattice (BCC) to the face-centered cubic crystal lattice (FCC), which is austenite or gamma iron. The melting point of iron is experimentally well defined for pressures less than 50 GPa. Austenitization means to heat the iron, iron-based metal, or steel to a temperature at which it changes crystal structure from ferrite to austenite. Austenitization means to heat the iron, iron-based metal, or steel to a temperature at which it changes crystal structure from ferrite to austenite. Austenite, also known as gamma-phase iron (γ-Fe), is a metallic, non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron, with an alloying element. What is the crystal lattice for Alpha (α) Iron and Gamma (γ) iron? This crystal structure is called a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure, and the geometric arrangement of atoms is often called a bcc lattice. The austenite allotrope is named after Sir William Chandler Roberts-Austen (1843–1902);[2] it exists at room temperature in some stainless steels due to the presence of nickel stabilizing the austenite at lower temperatures. As molten iron cools down, it solidifies at 1,538 °C (2,800 °F) into its δ allotrope, which has a body-centered cubic (BCC) crystal structure. da Silva b a Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, CEP 88040-900, Floriano’polis, SC, Brazil Question is ⇒ The crystal structure of gamma iron is, Options are ⇒ (A) body centred cubic, (B) face centred cubic, (C) hexagonal close packed, (D) cubic structure, (E) orthorhombic crystal., Leave your comments or Download question paper. In elements that reduce the gamma phase range, the alpha-gamma phase boundary connects with the gamma-delta phase boundary, forming what is usually called the Gamma loop. 1. It is a ferromagnetic material that generates magnetic properties due to its crystalline nature. Gamma iron as well as δ-iron are also paramagnetic. [18], The melting and boiling points of iron, along with its enthalpy of atomization, are lower than those of the earlier group 3d elements from scandium to chromium, showing the lessened contribution of the 3d electrons to metallic bonding as they are attracted more and more into the inert core by the nucleus;[19] however, they are higher than the values for the previous element manganese because that element has a half-filled 3d subshell and consequently its d-electrons are not easily delocalized. The primary phase of low-carbon or mild steel and most cast irons at room temperature is ferromagnetic α-Fe. Engineering Materials Engineering Materials. First described by E. S. Davenport and Edgar Bain, it is one of the decomposition products that may form when austenite (the face centered cubic crystal structure of iron) is cooled past a critical temperature of 727 °C (about 1340 °F). Molar volume vs. pressure for α-Fe at room temperature. IF YOU THINK THAT ABOVE POSTED MCQ IS WRONG. γ-iron can dissolve considerably more carbon (as much as 2.04% by mass at 1,146 °C).This γ form of carbon saturation is exhibited in stainless steel.. Due to its larger size, carbon atoms occupies octahedral interstitial sites in these crystals. Temperature is often gauged by watching the color temperature of the work, with the transition from a deep cherry-red to orange-red (815 °C (1,499 °F) to 871 °C (1,600 °F)) corresponding to the formation of austenite in medium and high-carbon steel. Pure iron can take on two crystal structures. Shown here is the steel part of the iron carbon diagram containing up to 2% Carbon. The solute atoms do not occupy lattice sites as illustrated in Fig. all five 3d electrons are un-paired, which is particularly important for the electron Such a material is said to have its hardenability increased. gamma iron: [noun] an iron that is stable between 910° C and 1400° C and that is characterized by a face-centered cubic crystal structure — compare alpha iron, delta iron. Beta iron (β-Fe) Crystallography: the crystal structure of gamma in nickel based superalloys bhadeshia123. [1] as of December 2011, recent and ongoing experiments are being conducted on high-pressure and Superdense carbon allotropes. It is a metallic, non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron with an alloying element. The high-pressure phases of iron are important as models for the solid parts of planetary cores. We have created a browser extension. On the other hand, such elements as silicon, molybdenum, and chromium tend to de-stabilize austenite, raising the eutectoid temperature. For this reason, the beta "phase" is not usually considered a distinct phase but merely the high-temperature end of the alpha phase field. This gamma form of iron is present in the most commonly used type of stainless steel[citation needed] for making hospital and food-service equipment. C. Copper, tin and zinc. For alloys, my understanding is that metalurgists name the phases as they discover them according to the greek alphabet: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, etc. The crystal structure of gamma iron is Face centered cubic The gamma iron is shown in figure . At very high pressure, a fourth form exists, called epsilon iron (ε-Fe). The structure is three-dimensional. This high-temperature ferrite is labeled delta-iron, even though its crystal structure is identical to that of alpha-ferrite. What separates these forms of Iron is the temperatures at which they are stable and the structure of the crystal lattice of Iron at these conditions. Other articles where Gamma iron is discussed: iron: Occurrence, uses, and properties: …there is a transition to gamma iron, which has a face-centred cubic (or cubic close-packed) structure and is paramagnetic (capable of being only weakly magnetized and only as long as the magnetizing field is present); its ability to form solid solutions with carbon is important in steelmaking. Preparation of Starting Materials (1) Iron 42. Nomenclature 40. Although both are smaller than the carbon atom, carbon distorts the BCC crystal structure more than the FCC crystal. Steel is typically austenitized at 900–1000 °C before it is quenched and tempered. Crystal structures may be described in a number of ways. The difference in strain rates of the inner and outer portion of the part may cause cracks to develop in the outer portion, compelling the use of slower quenching rates to avoid this. Also known as gamma iron, austenite is the FCC form of steel and is capable of dissolving almost 2.0 percent carbon. For this purpose, a gamma-iron(III) oxide manufactured according to known processes is heated at temperatures of from 400° to 700° C., the magnetic pigment having basic compounds on the crystal surface during this heat treatment and retaining a pH value above 8 until heating is over. The phase of a metal refers to the peculiar crystalline structure of the atoms. However, fcc transition metals can be grown on a face-centered cubic (fcc) or diamond cubic. Being about twice the diameter of the tetrahedral hole, the carbon introduces a strong local strain field. The primary phase of low-carbon or mild steel and most cast irons at room temperature is ferromagnetic α-Fe. In the Fig 1, the crystal lattice can be envisioned as three sets of intersecting planes of atoms, with each plane set parallel to one face of the cube. Beta iron (β-Fe) The beta designation maintains continuity of the Greek-letter progression of phases in iron and steel: α-Fe, β-Fe, austenite (γ-Fe), high-temperature δ-Fe, and high-pressure hexaferrum (ε-Fe). Austenite. B. Tempering following quenching will transform some of the brittle martensite into tempered martensite. Heating white cast iron above 727 °C (1,341 °F) causes the formation of austenite in crystals of primary cementite. Find answers now! [13] When it dissolves in iron, carbon atoms occupy interstitial "holes". Magnetically, α-iron is paramagnetic at high temperatures. Bronze is an alloy of. A. body centred cubic B. face centred cubic C. hexagonal close packed D. cubic structure E. orthorhombic crystal. (2) Ferric Oxide 42. The primary phase of low-carbon or mild steel and most cast irons at room temperature is ferromagnetic α-Fe. As the iron cools further to 1,394 °C its crystal structure changes to a face centered cubic (FCC) crystalline structure. That's it. Click hereto get an answer to your question ️ The gamma - form of iron has fcc structure (edge length = 386 pm) and beta - form has bcc structure (edge length = 290 pm). The crystal structure of gamma iron is_____? 15 GPa before transforming into a high-pressure form termed ε-iron, which crystallizes in a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure. The Mater Content of Gamma Ferric Oxide 34. In iron: Occurrence, uses, and properties. [9][10] It has a hardness of approximately 80 Brinell. A. α-Fe (alpha iron) denotes a BCC form of iron, whereas γ-Fe (gamma iron) denotes an FCC form of iron. (6) Preparation of Mixtures of Iron and Ferric Oxide 46. β-Fe is crystallographically identical to α-Fe, except for magnetic domains and the expanded body-centered cubic lattice parameter as a function of temperature, and is therefore of only minor importance in steel heat treating. Pure iron is one metal that changes from one of these crystalline structures to another while remaining solid. As the iron cools further to 1,394 °C its crystal structure changes to a face centered cubic (FCC) crystalline structure. 8. The metal is annealed in this temperature range until the austenite turns to bainite or ausferrite (bainitic ferrite + high-carbon austenite). Rarely as minute octahedral crystals, or acicular overgrowths; commonly as coatings on or replacements of Maghemite γ–Fe2O3 c 2001-2005 Mineral Data Publishing, version 1 Crystal Data: Cubic, typically with a tetragonal supercell. View Answer. The more open structure of the austenite is then able to absorb carbon from the iron-carbides in carbon steel. Fe is Copper structured and crystallizes in the cubic Fm-3m space group. At pressures above approximately 10 GPa and temperatures of a few hundred kelvin or less, α-iron changes into a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure, which is also known as ε-iron or hexaferrum;[16] the higher-temperature γ-phase also changes into ε-iron, but does so at a higher pressure. 15 GPa before transforming into a high-pressure form termed ε-iron, which crystallizes in a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure. This is surprising inasmuch as it is known from German Published Application No. Loading... Unsubscribe from bhadeshia123? For alloys, my understanding is that metalurgists name the phases as they discover them according to the greek alphabet: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, etc. Pure iron exists normally in one of two main kinds of crystal structure: alpha-iron with a body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice – forming a material known as ferrite, and a gamma-iron face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice – forming austenite - see Figure 1. SECTION II: Preliminary 1. Lithium Ferrite 39. The reverse also occurs: As α-iron is heated above the Curie temperature, the random thermal agitation of the atoms exceeds the oriented magnetic moment of the unpaired electron spins and it becomes paramagnetic. Below 912 °C (1,674 °F), iron has a body-centered cubic structure and is known as α-iron or ferrite.

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