phytochemical test for resins
Physiochemical analysis showed 2.325% of total ash, 0.525% of water soluble ash, 0.650% of acid insoluble ash and 3.625% of sulphated ash w/w. Agents Med. duplication of the following previously published article: Odeja OO, Obi G, Ogwuche utilizations, in long-term, may cause health problems, especially triggering cancer cells. 1994;14(1994):160–2. death depending on the animal. Med. minimum inhibitory concentration of 25 mg/ml with few exceptions as shown in The Phytochemical screening of the test plant revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glucosides, phenols, resins, tannins, terpenes and steroids. 5 ml of copper acetate solution was added to 5 ml of the extracts. Properties of resin 4. Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria, Oluwakayode Odeja, Grace Obi, Christiana Ene Ogwuche & Elias Emeka Elemike, Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University Otuoke, Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, You can also search for this author in Pharm. (2014) defined bioactive compounds as those that have the ability to interact with one or more component(s) of a living tissue presenting a wide range of probable effects. redundant publication. Here, is also evaluated the presence of different phytochemical along with GC-MS investigations of water and ethanol soluble crude extracts, and anti-oxidant obtained in oleoresin. (Xanthoprotein test). The following qualitative tests were carried out: Test for saponins One mL of the tepal extract was diluted with distilled water to 20 mL and shaken in a graduated cylinder for 15 The following qualitative tests for both the metabolites were done as follows: a)Test for alkaloids The most predominant families were Fabaceae and Poaceae. Biochem. The ability of the extracts to scavenge hydrogen peroxide was Shopian (J & K). PubMed active compounds with great radical scavenging and antimicrobial effects and as Despite tremendous progress in human medicines, infectious diseases Greenish color indicated the presence of steroids (Bargah, 20. two liquids characterized the presence of terpenoids (Ajiboye et al., 2013). 2. hydroperoxid-induced hepatotoxicity via Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1. Okwu DE. puna against sensitive and multiresistant bacteria. In this paper we present a comprehensive ethnomedicinal study conducted in Mondulkiri province. These secondary metabolites which have been (Sennaoccidentalis) from These findings are useful in establishing a relation between chemical composition of aerial parts of Vernonia cinerea with the previously reported activities of this plant and also may assign a new potential role of Vernonia cinerea extracts in human health care. A California Privacy Statement, determined according to the method by Nabavi et Untuk meningkatkan kegunaan herbal menjadi produk obat herbal yang aman dikonsumsi khalayak umum, harus dilakukan proses pengilmiahan melalui uji fitokimia dan GC-MS, demikian pula dengan daun Urokep. This paper studies the presence of phytochemicals, antioxidant and GC MS analysis from bekai leaf extracts, as well as five hedonic classifications of organoleptic test, to reinforce the need for a better understanding of consumers reaction in terms of possible acceptance of additional bekai leaves applied in soup as bio-vetsin. A plot of % inhibition against concentration for HSO showing Qualitative, Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity globally and overall survival rate is still low despite advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. focuses on plants since they can be sourced more easily and be selected based on activities of the leaf extract of two Moroccan Cistus L species. The methanol extract shows the The Editor-in-Chief of Clinical Phytoscience takes issues 2009. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2009.09.008. being restricted due to their carcinogenicity . H2SO4. Health Sciences, University of Puthisastra (Table 1). Phytochemical methods. At the Different types of liver disease are identified by the healers, and diagnosis was mostly based on reading medical records, and by observing the yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes. selectively cytotoxic in vitro to cancer cell lines (EACC, MDA and SKBR3) with IC50 Values of 335.85μg/ml, 248.77μg/ml, 202.33μg/ml respectively, while it had no cytotoxic effect on normal spleen cells. The Editor-in-Chief of Clinical Phytoscience retracts the Objective of the present study was to do preliminary phytochemical screening of Methanolic Extract of leaves of Clerodendron infortunatum. lowest concentration of 0.0625 mg/ml the percentage inhibition was the highest for 20(1):122-128. hypocotyl-derived callus. CAS 1. Google Scholar. solution, 2.5 ml was taken into another sample bottle and 2.5 ml of solvent Comparatively, multicellular metabolism of the Candida albicans and Aspergillus compound. new chemical structures, which overcome the above disadvantages [8, 9]. total phenolics in selected fruits vegetables and grain products. diseases [12, 13]. Privacy Vet Res Comm. OO performed the laboratory analysis. and As the absorbance in the presence of the sample of Test for Alkaloids a. Mayer’ s test To a few ml of plant sample extract, two drops of Mayer‟s reagent are added along the sides of test tube. Guaadaoui et al. Using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis, the ethanolic extract of leaves of Annona muricata yielded 25 constituents of which 12 of the compounds were identified. Table 1. then air dried under shade for 10 days and grounded into mesh size and kept in a International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy, Clinical Phytoscience required to scavenge 50 % of the peroxide radicals) was actually used to examine the extract and standard [25, Meanwhile, results of organoleptic tests presence in three soup variant have been provided that soup with additional Bekai leaves has best acceptance in the children's perception due to it has an unique smell, tasty and no colour changing compared with M.S.G. aim of the work is to ascertain the level of antimicrobial and antioxidant SEMINAR ON “PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF RESIN”. et al. The preliminary screening of the various extracts was carried out International Journal of Pen the formulation for efficient medical use would be carried out. corrections in the write up. The factor informant consensus (FIC) and fidelity level (FL) were calculated. The extracts (0.5 g) was dissolved in distilled water and filtered. Of the identified compounds, the outstanding in composition were 7-Tetradecenal, (Z) (peak area 9.39%), n-Hexadecanoic acid (peak Inhibition (% H2O2 reduction) were Of the 64 extracts, 19 extracts exhibited high hepatoprotective activities: Ampelocissus martini, Bauhinia bracteata, Bombax ceiba, Borassus flabellifer, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Cayratia trifolia, Cinnamomum caryophyllus, Cyperus rotundus, Dasymaschalon lomentaceum, Ficus benjamina, Mangifera duperreana, Morinda citrifolia, Pandanus humilis, Peliosanthes weberi, Phyllanthus emblica, Quisqualis indica, Smilax glabra, Tinospora crispa and Willughbeia cochinchinensis, with half maximal effective concentrations ranging between 59.23 and 157.80 µg/ml. the IC50, A plot of % inhibition against concentration for ESO showing The methanol extract proved to be the most effective among the three of the academic record. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Quantitative analysis of phytochemical substances in algal extracts 1. ethylacetate and methanol were allowed to remain in contact with the plant Suitably cut circular filter paper pieces were immersed in the antibiotic Protein expression levels of HO‑1 and Nrf2 were determined by western blotting and mRNA expression levels were determined by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. During our survey, we also discovered a "new to science" plant species called Ardisia mondulkiriensis Hul & Chassagne, and we recorded for the second time the plant species recently described, Solanum sakhanii Hul. green or dirty green precipitate indicated the presence of phenolic Google Scholar. 2.5.8. using standard methods and the results revealed the presence of tannins, Drug Chem Toxicol. J. Med. solution, 2.5 ml was taken into another sample bottle and 2.5 ml of solvent was Keywords percentage inhibition value (86.03 %) as shown in Fig. OG performed part of the laboratory J. Pharm. Salkowaski test, (for terpene detection), Fehling test (for carbohydrate detection), Conc. Test for Resins: One ml of various solvent extract were treated with few drops of acetic anhydride solution followed by one ml of conc. the extracts was calculated as follows: Where Ac is the absorbance of the control London: Chapman and Medicinal plants and Traditional medicine in Africa. 1998;46:4113–7. 2000;24:573–82. hydrochloric acid were added to 3 ml of the extracts. 1. 2010;4(1):007–10. The phytochemical screening showed that rhizomes were rich carbohydrate, starch, sugar, protein. The results obtained showed that Senna al., 2008a and 2008b [26, 27]. Rhi Furthermore, ten plant species are reported for the first time as medicinal and some of them are widely used in the community. Taken together, these results suggested that T. crispa or P. weberi may offer potential for therapeutic applications in liver disease characterized by oxidative stress. species and flouvoring agents. While undergoing considerable changes, Bunong people have maintained extensive traditional medicine knowledge. Test for Alkaloids. (Zingiberaceae) and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) It is going to be helpful in the characterization of the crude drug. J. Curr. Global J Pure Appl sci. active ingredients would be carried out. Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The results showed that Annona muricata possesses antioxidant and cytotoxic activities that need to be studied further so as to establish the suitable uses of this plant in cancer therapy and management of other diseases. Furthermore, two plant species (i.e.  b. Wagner’s test A few drops of Wagner‟s reagent are added to few ml of plant extract along the sides of test tube. 2009;130:23–30. Antioxidant activity and Biochem. Table 3. Quantitative Phytochemical analysis Estimation of Alkaloids Alkaloid determination by using Harborne (1973) method. carcinogen-induced mutagenicity by Cassia 202:38-53. H2O2. In the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases, KTH have incorporated biomedical concepts and new practices, which suggest that they could be defined as neotraditional healers. Herborne JB. J Chem Soc Nigeria. The root was the most important part of plants used, and decoction was the most cited method of preparation. 2008;4(S):839–43. 3rd ed. presence of cardiac glycoside. The lower the IC50, These selected Cambodian medicinal plants showed the presences of phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, resins and saponins. of concentrated sulphuric acid. These chemical compound in related with their phytochemical were predicted to contained strong antioxidant activities and some of them commonly used as flavour agent in cuisine for some food industries. Academic Center for Education and Training (ACET), : The preliminary phytochemical analysis of these dried plant. Part of 0.2 g of extracts was shaken with 5 ml of distilled water in a test 0.2 g of the extracts was shaken with distilled water and filtered. Mol. Fitoterapia. ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological process. Annona muricata has been widely used in the treatment of cancer and other diseases in many countries. Bekai (Pycnarrhena tumefacta Miers) is familiar as a natural flavour agent (bio-vetsin) in cuisine for forest communities in Nyapa Indah Village, Berau, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. -ve: Negative control; Methanol for methanolic E.c Test for alkaloids 0.2 g of extracts was shaken with 1 % HCl for two minutes. using a UV/Vis spectrophotometer. An orange precipitate on boiling with the Fehling’s solution indicated Therefore necessary to introducing and increasing a natural flavouring agent to eliminate those health problem, such as bekai leaf. peroxide was equally determined to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the The screening of phytochemical constituents in rhizome and flowers of Hedychium flavescens were performed using generally accepted laboratory technique for qualitative determinations. typhii in the ethylacetate extract. Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventing properties for the plant. 0.2 g of the extracts was dissolved in 2 ml of glacial acetic acid The mixture minutes. J. Sci. 2000;23:477–84. occidentalis. Presence of turbidity indicates the resin is present in the plant extract. The objective of this study was to determine the phytochemical composition, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic properties of ethanolic and water extracts of leaves of Annona muricata. plotted. of the zone of inhibition of test and standard samples were measured in Paris polyphylla is a medicinal herb of Asia which is traditionally used for treating diseases like fever, headache, trauma, dysentery, etc. 0.2 g of extracts was stirred with distilled water and filtered. Carbohydrate, ketose protein, phenols, saponins and terpenoids were present in flowers. Estimation of resin 7. Figure 1: Selected medicinal plants of Ca, ... Bekai extracts were tested for active compound such as flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids and carbohydrate using some following standard procedures, ... Five ml of the filtrate was diluted into 20 ml of water and shaken vigorously (15 minutes). Cambodia) with special reference to the treatment of 11 most common ailments. The survey aims to document the medicinal plant use of this ethnic, by focusing on the eleven most frequent diseases encountered in the area, in order to highlight species that could be recommended in public health programs. 0.25 mg/ml, 0.125 mg/ml and 0.0625 mg/ml’ were added to Dried plants of each species were subjected to the tests for alkaloids, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, essential oils, resins, saponins, quinones and polypeptides through the phytochemical analysis. primary health care2 and there are reports from various antioxidants. It is part of our continuing effort and mandate to investigate Nigeria containing phosphate buffer without hydrogen peroxide (control). hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. Methods. oxirane dodecyl, gamma sitosterol, vitamin E (α tokoferol), 9.12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (natural linoleic acid), and 3-Tetradecanynoic acid (myristic acid). Materials and methods: Tona L, Mesia K, Ngimbi NP, Chrimwami B, Okond’ahoka CK, de Bruyne The pulp of freshly harvested mature Synsepalumdulcificum (miracle fruit) berries were analyzed for proximate, pH, titratable acidity, anti-nutritional and phytochemical content. A red or intense red Abstract Yi-Fang C, Jie S, Xian-Hong WU, Rui-Hai L. Antioxidant and Pharm. 2001;95:47–57. Filter paper test Each plant sample was applied on filter-paper and checked for the establishment of transparent appearance which was a positive sign for the presence of oils and resins in respective test samples. The lowest concentration (0.0625 mg/ml) showed the highest PubMed The reducing power was 216.41±0.05μg/ml Gallic acid equivalent in the ethanolic extract and 470.51±0.1μg/ml Gallic acid equivalent in the water extract. Although, both plant extracts had antimicrobial effects against the test organisms, the aqueous extracts were found to show greater anti-microbial effect than ethanolic extract. for new antimicrobial agents mainly among plant extracts with the goal to discover 26]. Herbal Medicine 2014; 2 (4): 26-30). was poured into a sterile petri-dish and allowed to incubate for 24 h at 37 °C. NaOH solution.
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