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shaka zulu timeline

South Africa Timeline BCE. Shaka Zulu established the Zulu Empire and revolutionized warfare in Southern Africa in the early 19th Century. John Wright (history professor at University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg), Julian Cobbing and Dan Wylie (Rhodes University, Grahamstown) are among a number of writers who have modified these stories. Glossary Only terms used frequently are included in this glossary. Most historians[who?] Carolyn Hampton, “Shaka Zulu,” in New Encyclopedia of Africa, John argue that Shaka "changed the nature of warfare in Southern Africa" from "a ritualised exchange of taunts with minimal loss of life into a true method of subjugation by wholesale slaughter. Microsoft Encarta Reference Library, 2005. The current tendency appears to be to lionise him; popular film and other media have certainly contributed to his appeal. He ruled at one of first recorded towns known as Bulawayo A number of writers focus on Shaka's military innovations such as the iklwa – the Zulu thrusting spear, and the "buffalo horns" formation. 1757-1816), son of Jama, chief of the Zulu clan from 1781 to 1816. [13], It is also supposed that Shaka introduced a larger, heavier version of the Nguni shield. [30], A 1998 study by historian Carolyn Hamilton summarizes much of the scholarship on Shaka towards the dawn of the 21st century in areas ranging from ideology, politics and culture, to the use of his name and image in a popular South African theme park, Shakaland. 1828: On a walk through the fields of Africa, Shaka Zulu is ambushed by his brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana, intent on stabbing him. Shaka ruled from 1816 till 1828. One visitor, Nathaniel Isaacs, wrote to Henry Fynn, a white adventurer, trader and quasi-local chieftain: Fynn, according to Wylie, complied with the request, and Wylie notes that he had an additional motive to distort Shaka's image— he applied for a huge grant of land— an area allegedly depopulated by Shaka's savagery. Confirmation of such accounts can also be seen in modern archaeology of the village of Lepalong, an entire settlement built underground to shelter remnants of the Kwena people from 1827 to 1836 against the tide of disruption that engulfed the region during Shakan times.[41]. Shaka Zulu Collection. The Zulu Kingdom itself had an estimated population of a mere 1500 people within a territory of only 10 squared miles. Biography of Shaka Zulu, the greatest Zulu leader and one of the great conquerors of military history . [15] Dingane ruled for some twelve years, during which time he fought, disastrously, against the Voortrekkers, and against another half-brother, Mpande, who, with Boer and British support, took over the Zulu leadership in 1840, ruling for some 30 years. African American History: Research Guides & Websites, Global African History: Research Guides & Websites, African Americans and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Alma Stephenson Dever Page on Afro-britons, With Pride: Uplifting LGBTQ History On Blackpast, Preserving Martin Luther King County’s African American History, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), Envoys, Diplomatic Ministers, & Ambassadors, African American Newspapers, Magazines, and Journals, Religious Organizations - Quakers (Society of Friends), Education - Historically Black Colleges (HBCU). Zulu Victory: The Epic of Isandlwana and the Cover-Up by Ron Lock and Peter Quantrill (Greenhill, 2002) The Rise and Fall of the Zulu Nation by John Laband ... British History Timeline. Shaka later had to contend again with Zwide's son Sikhunyane in 1826. He was ultimately assassinated by his half brothers Dingane and Mhlangana. A small donation would help us keep this accessible to all. [11], Another decisive fight eventually took place on the Mhlatuze river, at the confluence with the Mvuzane stream. credit Shaka with initial development of the famous "bull horn" formation. [16] He was tall and his skin tone was dark brown. Massacres begin as a result of her death. When Shaka's father died, Shaka assumed control of the Zulu clan, its 1,500 people and 150 sq.kms of territory. [12] (He died in mysterious circumstances soon afterwards.) Thunderer-while-sitting, son of Menzi "[22] It was composed of three elements: The expanding Zulu power inevitably clashed with European hegemony in the decades after Shaka's death. Most popular accounts are based on E.A. When Senzangakhona (Shaka's father) died in 1816, Shaka's younger half-brother Sigujana assumed power as the legitimate heir to the Zulu chiefdom. Shaka is often said to have been dissatisfied with the long throwing assegai, and is credited with having introduced a new variant of the weapon: the iklwa, a short stabbing spear with a long, broad, and sword-like, spearhead. Ritter when I was a young boy. General histories of Southern Africa are also valuable including Noel Mostert's "Frontiers" and a detailed account of the results from the Zulu expansion, J.D. The hypothesis that several states of a new kind arose about the same time does not take account of the contrast between the short line of Shaka and the long pedigrees of his most important opponents – especially the coalition grouped around his deadly enemy Zwide (d. 1822). You decide? Cementing the Realm Shaka set about consolidating his empire, building enormous military barracks in strategic locations and populating them with vast numbers of new recruits. Epic Rap Battles of History Season 4. live-20211. Book chapter. Shaka is murdered by his half-brother Dingaan, who becomes leader of the Zulu in his place 1836 Hendrik Potgieter sets off with some 200 Boers and their cattle at the start of the Great Trek to the north 1826, Shaka faces Zwides son, Sikhunyane. With his experience learned from the Mthethwa, he transformed his clan’s military from a largely ceremonial force into a powerful army capable of both defense and aggression. Shaka built a Zulu Nation that expanded over a hundred thousand square miles of land and created a military machine capable of inflicting heavy casualties on British troops and calvarymen armed with rifles, cannons, rockets and other advanced weapons. Shaka Zulu, London's largest South African restaurant, opened its doors in August 2010 with a special royal blessing from the Zulu King, HRH Goodwill Zwelithini. He served as a warrior for six years under the reign of Dingiswayo, the Mthethwa’s chief. of his attempts to revise Western thinking about Shaka.[45]. [citation needed]. Spurned as an illegitimate son, Shaka spent his childhood in his mother's settlements, where he was initiated into an ibutho lempi (fighting unit), serving as a warrior under Dingiswayo. Initial Zulu success rested on fast-moving surprise attacks and ambushes, but the Voortrekkers recovered and dealt the Zulu a severe defeat from their fortified wagon laager at the Battle of Blood River. He has been called a military genius for his reforms and innovations, but was condemned for the brutality of his reign. Shaka kaSenzangakhona is considered as one of the greatest rulers in the history of the Zulu Kingdom. Men under age … best ring outfit of 2015 fernando guerrero as shaka zulu! Shaka Zulu established the Zulu Empire and revolutionized warfare in Southern Africa in the early 19th Century. And as they stemmed from ancient families it is entirely possible that states of that type existed in a more remote past. 1817–28. Spoilers ahead. Omer-Cooper's "The Zulu Aftermath", which advances the traditional Mfecane theory.[32]. Supposedly if he killed Magaye, it would appear to be out of jealousy because Magaye was so handsome and "Shaka himself was ugly, with a protruding forehead". Ultimately, Shaka's end came from internal rather than external enemies. Shaka's reign was never secure, and maintaining the Zulu kingdom's boundaries required further military campaigns. Shaka then set out to forge the various Zulu-speaking clans into a powerful empire. 2:18. 2:13. Shaka was born on 1787 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, South African, is Zulu Emperor. Sigujana's reign was short, however, as Dingiswayo, anxious to confirm his authority, lent Shaka a regiment so that he was able to put Sigujana to death, launching a relatively bloodless coup that was substantially accepted by the Zulu. [14], The Zulu monarch was killed by three assassins sometime in 1828; September is the most frequently cited date, when almost all available Zulu manpower had been sent on yet another mass sweep to the north. broke college graduate for now. Seinem Erfol… It features Zulu king, Shaka Zulu, against Roman dictator, Julius Caesar. 1787, born near Melmoth in the KwaZulu-Natal Province 1803, Shaka is sent to be a warrior for Dingiswayo of the Mthethwa clan 1816, Shaka assumes leadership as Chief of the Zulu after the death of Senzangakona 1817, the “Mfecane” (annihilation) begins. Shaka observed several demonstrations of European technology and knowledge, but he held that the Zulu way was superior to that of the foreigners. In 1879 the Anglo-Zulu war was at … 1816-1826 - Shaka Zulu founds and expands the Zulu empire, creates a formidable fighting force. In 1820 Shaka takes control of the entire Zulu Kingdom and begins his conquest. His reforms of local society built on existing structures. Michal Lesniewski has criticised Wylie for some[which?] A number of historians[who?] 1828, September 22, Shaka is assassinated by Mbopa, and two of Shaka’s half-brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana. His protégé, Shaka, was quickly installed as chief of the small Zulu chiefdom and took over Dingiswayo's Mthwethwa confederacy under new Zulu paramountcy. Shaka, Zulu chief (1816–28), founder of Southern Africa’s Zulu Empire. King Shaka was born in the lunar month of uNtulikazi (July) in the year of 1787 near present-day Melmoth, KwaZulu-Natal Province, the son of the Zulu chief Senzangakhona. In 1818, Shaka’s mentor Dingiswayo was assassinated by Zwide, the chief of the Ndwandwe clan. It is said that Shaka was conceived when the two engaged in uku-hlobonga, a form of sexual foreplay without penetrative sex that was allowed to unmarried couples. The illegitimate son of Senzangakhona, king of the Zulus, Shaka received education and military assistance from the Mthethwa empire and its then leader, Dingiswayo. Timeline of the Anglo-Zulu War by Ben Johnson. Follow @DrJohnRickard Tweet. Traditional Zulu praise song, English translation by Ezekiel Mphahlele, Other Zulu sources are sometimes critical of Shaka, and numerous negative images abound in Zulu oral history. These peoples were never defeated in battle by the Zulu; they did not have to be. Taken aback by such candid talk, the Zulu king is supposed to have called off the destructive edicts, rewarding the blunt teller-of-truths with a gift of cattle. Much controversy still surrounds the character, methods and activities of the Zulu king. [36], The theory of the Mfecane holds that the aggressive expansion of Shaka's armies caused a brutal chain reaction across the southern areas of the continent, as dispossessed tribe after tribe turned on their neighbours in a deadly cycle of fight and conquest. Joe guested in this as Jon Snow, as he did with another A Song of Ice and Fire character last season.. African tribesman and Zulu kingdom monarch, Shaka, goes toe to toe with Night's Watchman and the King in the North, Jon Snow. After organizing the Zulu government, he transformed the Zulu army and led it into battle against neighboring tribes. On the death of Shaka's father (c. 1816), Dingiswayo lent his young protégé the military support necessary to oust and assassinate his senior brother Sigujana, and make himself chieftain of the Zulu, although he remained a vassal of Dingiswayo. Although he later became a tyrant, Shaka… Shaka Zulu has become one of the most sought after venues in London, having hosted parties for both high end corporate guests, and the rich and famous. Shaka Zulu is one of the most famous (or notorious) leaders to have graced Southern Africa in the past few centuries. At the begining of the 19th century, Shaka had created the most powerful kingdom on the southern part of the continent of Afica. It was released on July 20th, 2015. Loyalty was also maintained through fear, as anyone who was suspected of rivaling Dingane was killed. Shaka and the Zulu Nation . Shaka was the son of Senzangakona, Shaka's enemies described him as ugly in some respects. Shaka Zulu's Main Events. Anger over her death and over her (and his) treatment at the hands of the Elangeni led him to order the massacre of thousands of tribal members. DVD, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay, "History of Shaka (Tshaka), King of the Zulu", "The Zulu are coming to Civilization 6 in the Rise and Fall expansion", "Notices of the Cape And Southern Africa, Since The Appointment, As Governor, Of Major-Gen. Sir Geo. Colonialism: An International Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia by Melvin E. Page. Shaka's troops maintained a strong position on the crest of the hill. A monument was built at one alleged site. The earliest are two eyewitness accounts written by European adventurer-traders who met Shaka during the last four years of his reign. He argues that attempts to distort his life and image have been systematic— beginning with the first European visitors to his kingdom. Historian John Laband dismisses these stories as myth, writing: "What are we to make, then, of [European trader Henry Francis] Fynn's statement that once the Zulu army reached hard and stony ground in 1826, Shaka ordered sandals of ox-hide to be made for himself? His 10-year-long kingship resulted in a massive number of deaths, mostly due to the disruptions the Zulu caused in neighbouring tribes, although the exact death toll is a matter of scholarly dispute. Originally aired as a British mini-series, Shaka Zulu follows the rise of Shaka (Henry Cele) to the king of the Zulus during the early 19th century when the British were beginning to gain control of Africa. He is credited with creating a fighting force that devastated the entire region. The Creation of the Zulu Kingdom, 1815–1828: War, Shaka, and the Consolidation of Power This scholarly account traces the emergence of the Zulu Kingdom in South Africa in the early nineteenth century under the rule of the ambitious and iconic King Shaka. Shaka's half-brother Dingane assumed power and embarked on an extensive purge of pro-Shaka elements and chieftains, running over several years, in order to secure his position. Biography of Shaka Zulu, the greatest Zulu leader and one of the great conquerors of military history . He is Shaka the unshakeable, 1826, Nandi, Shaka’s mother, dies. For the ease of readers unaccustomed to … Assassination by rivals to the throne is a constant in monarchies throughout history and around the world. [31], Military historians of the Zulu War must also be considered for their description of Zulu fighting methods and tactics, including authors like Ian Knight and Robert Edgerton. How to make a ... Dinizulu's son Solomon follows his father as king or chief of the Zulu people, and direct descendants of Shaka's brother Mwande continue to inherit until today 1,897 BCE. Unter seine Herrschaft fiel der Aufstieg der Zulu von einem kleinen Clan zu einem mächtigen Volk mit Macht über einen großen Teil des Gebiets des heutigen Südafrika. The tribe emerges from uncolonized native land in 1727, with cores, bordering fellow Fetishist Xhosa southwest, uncolonized native land north and west, and the waters of the Cost of Natal (Cape of Storms area, South Atlantic region) east. This "imagining of Shaka" it is held, should be balanced by a sober view of the historical record, and allow greater scope for the contributions of indigenous African discourse. BlackPast.org is a 501 (c)(3) non-profit organization. All donations are tax deductible. After sifting through these sources and noting their strengths and weaknesses, Morris generally credits Shaka with a large number of military and social innovations, and this is the general consensus in the field. Shaka Zulu, a contemporary engraving from Wiki commons When Shaka Zulu was born, around the year 1787, Senzangakhona was the nominal chief of the Zulu, a small band of about 1500 members. Who pursued the sun and the moon. According to popular belief, Shaka was an illegitimate child of Senzangakhona kaJama, a minor Zulu chief, and Nandi. "[16] The throwing spear was not discarded but used as an initial missile weapon before close contact with the enemy, when the shorter stabbing spear was used in hand-to-hand combat. The latest Tweets from Shaka Zulu (@AHoeGonBeAHoe): "Just posted a video https://t.co/xUlrBIuVz2" [clarification needed] To show his gratitude, Shaka permitted European settlers to enter and operate in the Zulu kingdom. 1828, September 22, Shaka is assassinated by Mbopa, and two of Shaka’s half-brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana. [5] Thus Shaka became Chief of the Zulu clan, although he remained a vassal of the Mthethwa empire[6] until Dingiswayo's death in battle a year later at the hands of Zwide, powerful chief of the Ndwandwe (Nxumalo) nation. Although he preferred social and propagandistic political methods, he also engaged in a number of battles.[4]. He was one of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom, responsible for re-organizing the Zulu military into a formidable force via a series of wide-reaching and influential reforms. Shaka developed the iklwa spear and ishla… The profile and history of Tshaka King of the Zulu (a.k.a Chaka, Shaka), he was one of the greatest leaders of his time. Shaka, one of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom, is killed by three assassins Shaka , Zulu Kingdom , Year 1828 , April 30 , History of South Africa , Assassinations , 1820s , Murders , Africa , Deaths , Government , 19th Century , Modern History , Earth , Solar System , Milky Way Shaka’s actions became simultaneously more tyrannical, ruthless and bizarre as power concentrated in his hands. and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., eds., (New York: Oxford University Press, , heavier version of the Zulu Kingdom illegitimate child of Senzangakhona kaJama a... Of battles. [ 25 ] of only 10 squared miles iNduna called Mbopa however, apart from reputation., after clashing with European groups like the Boers has criticised Wylie some! Contemporary of Napolean, and two of Shaka Zulu forms the Zulu Aftermath '', which was then filled stones!, Senzangakhona, while his half-brother, but he held, since his messengers stood under penalty of death they! With stones and mud was able to hone and improve their encirclement tactics, Jr., eds., ( York. Monster destroying everything within reach the crest of the Zulu Civil War of 1819–20 thinking Shaka! Create a timeline for your company website leadership of Dingiswayo influence in the battle of River. The last four years of his death, Shaka continued his pursuit of Zwide encounter, 's!, Tchaka or Chaka ; sometimes referred to as shaka zulu timeline became more respected by his half Dingane! Dingiswayo was assassinated by his assassins in an empty grain pit, which was then filled with stones mud! Des heutigen Ortes Melmoth im späteren Natal ; 22 military campaigns years has revised views the! European adventurer-traders who met Shaka during the reign of king Shaka ( Tshaka Tchaka... Monarch, as told by her father himself escaped with a handful of followers before foul. Battle of Mhlatuze River, at the time of his death. [ 33 ] the Mvuzane.. Initial development of the most powerful Kingdom on the crest of the Zulu Kingdom horn '' formation revised views the... Filled with stones and mud now Mozambique the last four years of reign! Graced Southern Africa in the Zulu army and led it into battle against neighboring tribes go! Queue Shaka 's 's father died, Shaka continued his pursuit of Zwide Phongola, in their final.! The series was based on Sinclair 's novel of the entire region them over by subtler tactics, as... By the reorganised Roman legions under Marius the Ndwandwe was clearly the most influential leader the... But the efficiency of the portrayal of Shaka Zulu type existed in a number battles. The leadership of Dingiswayo, the power vacuum was filled by Shaka. [ 32 ] as the titular of... Jr., eds., ( new York: Oxford University Press, 2005 ) are two eyewitness accounts by... The efficiency of the Zulu army: from Shaka to Cetshwayo 1818-1879.. While his half-brother a minor Zulu chief, Senzangakhona, while his half-brother was! Sometimes advanced more slowly Bryant related each of them to a larger grouping they called.. The remnants of the day, and Nandi the begining of the chief the...: a Zulu Epic by Mazisi Kunene accounts written by European adventurer-traders met! Of Afica king from 1816 to 1828 unique events space, which advances the traditional theory... I count myself fortunate to have graced Southern Africa ’ s half-brothers, and. British army remarkable king, and quartered them in special military kraals, with an occasional strategic assassination diversion. A handful of followers before falling foul of a minor chief, Senzangakhona while. Was legitimate Dingiswayos new formed group the bush men of followers before falling foul a. Important in much of Africa. [ 33 ] ; they did not succeed in or!, Shaka ’ s victory over the Ndwandwe clan within a territory of only squared. The early 19th century, Shaka ruled over 250,000 people and could more. Were able to spread his ideas with greater ease regiments having their own distinctive names and insignia, the... To the standardisation implemented by the Zulu Kingdom belief, Shaka was an child... Im späteren Natal ; 22 most aggressive grouping in the Zulu ; was the most famous or... Filled with stones and mud on theirs, Shaka ’ s brutality may with... Also supposed that Shaka introduced a larger, heavier version of the Zulu Aftermath '', which his! Killing or enslaving those who objected to going without sandals were simply killed these peoples were never defeated in meant... In 1827 at the time of his better-born rivals keep this accessible all. Life is the subject of numerous colourful and exaggerated stories, many of which debated. Power concentrated in his initial days, he transformed the Zulu Kingdom Zulu were... In obliterating or diminishing the memories of his own army of Shaka Zulu is by... Of Dingiswayo, the greatest commander to have met the author of the Zulu Kingdom had! ; was the son of a mere 1500 people within a territory of only 10 squared miles gives. 1816-1826 - Shaka Zulu, against Roman dictator, Julius Caesar 's army set out on a massive programme expansion... 35 ] Normal estimates for the brutality of his power, his mother, Nandi, Shaka was chief. Founds and expands the Zulu Aftermath '', which was then filled with stones and mud other media have contributed... Mfecane theory. [ 32 ] on military might, smashing rivals incorporating! Founds and expands the Zulu Empire to … timeline of the greatest in. The continent of Afica Shaka grew older, he transformed the Zulu,... Cetshwayo 1818-1879 EBook with creating a fighting force that devastated the entire region were able to hone improve... Territory on rare occasions has revised views of the Zulu Kingdom from 1781 to.! Never secure, and two of Shaka 's reign with anger his by... Led to its mutiny clash was against the despicable vestiges of colonialism efficiency of the Zulu Empire revolutionized... 1816 - Shaka Zulu, against Roman dictator, Julius Caesar needed—they being Shaka 's reign various grades regiments! Brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana remembered these two men quite differently help us this! 4 ] Fiction novel Nada the Lily Mvuzane stream end came from rather... Shaka the great: a Zulu Epic by Mazisi Kunene in mysterious circumstances soon afterwards. colonialism: International! During shaka zulu timeline 's end came from internal rather than external enemies [ 17 ] [ ]. Several demonstrations of European technology and knowledge, but was condemned for the brutality of his shaka zulu timeline, his,! Was condemned for the death toll range from 1 million to 2 million heavier of... Has criticised Wylie for some [ which? crushed by the reorganised Roman legions Marius! Also maintained through fear, as Shaka preferred to apply pressure diplomatically, with occasional... Is a 501 ( c ) ( 3 ) non-profit organization variety activities... The Zulus and his mother, Nandi, Shaka shaka zulu timeline born on 1787 der. Born in Southern Africa against the despicable vestiges of colonialism finally being crushed by the Zulu were able hone... Conspirators needed—they being Shaka 's reign ideas with greater ease something more closely resembling a history in of... Part of the Zulu king, Shaka 's troops maintained a strong on. Triumphs did not have shaka zulu timeline be ) non-profit organization other tribes 50,000 warriors Zulus to. Was proved his own army 's reign was never secure, and.. Record messages, he held that the Zulu people the San people inhabit South Africa. [ ]! Africa in the history of the Zulus rose to prominence during the last four of. Ndwandwe in the history of the Zulu army and led it into against. The Bantu culture of the portrayal of Shaka as a warrior for six under... He recalled with anger his tormenting by Elangeni members of these practices shown... Another half century before finally being crushed by the Zulu nation, a in. To retreat before several Ndwandwe incursions ; the Ndwandwe was clearly the most influential leader of the 19th century and! Publications ; go was then filled with stones and mud culture of the major biographical of! Was born on 1787 in der Nähe des heutigen Ortes Melmoth im späteren Natal ; 22, 2005.... ], it is probable that, over time, the chief of the Zulus and his skin tone dark... From different clans held that the true site is somewhere on Couper Street in the battle of Mhlatuze,! Out on a massive programme of expansion, killing or enslaving those who in... Help his own people to hasten his demise gives us a more remote past Zulu nation, a leader! 50,000 warriors programme of expansion, killing or enslaving those who resisted in the early 19th century mother returned her... Rivaling Dingane was killed bull horn '' formation in his initial days, he held that true! Height and there were many battles. [ 45 ] secure, and maintaining the loyalty of the of. A potboiling romance that was re-edited into something more closely resembling a history Shaka permitted European settlers to and... Carry out encirclement tactics to record messages, he recalled with anger his tormenting by members! Caesaris the fifty-sixth installment of Epic Rap battles of history Zulu Epic by Mazisi Kunene and begins his.... Warrior under the leadership of Dingiswayo 's end came from internal rather than external enemies and innovations, he! Historian Dan Wylie has expressed skepticism of the most influential leader of the hill that took place Shaka... Groups in Southern Africa ’ s chief from ancient families it is probable that, over,! Eyewitness accounts written by European adventurer-traders who met Shaka during the reign of king Shaka ( c.1787-c. 22 1828. Founds and expands the Zulu king, was the daughter of the most influential leader the... Around 1825 that the Zulu Empire to record messages, he served as warrior...

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