types of slaughtering methods Skin forelegs and hindlegs, fist over breast, abdomen and sides, and after hanging, fist over legs, back, rump and shoulder. The slaughter of livestock involves three distinct stages: preslaughter handling, stunning, and slaughtering. targeting the brainstem using landmarks other than midline frontal may include, for example,: the side of the head, behind the ear or near the poll at the top or the back of the head, however, alternative approaches may increase the likelihood that the brainstem and midbrain will be missed, a projectile can sever the spinal cord without causing unconsciousness. The definitely conscious will be clearly distinguishable from the definitely unconsciousness (including brain dead) by observation of well documented signs associated with these states. There is the risk for any stunning method to fail; however with well trained and qualified staff, equipment used according to the manufacturer's specifications and which is always kept well maintained, these risks should be controllable to the point that the outcome of avoidable suffering can be achieved. MS student in Animal Science The licence holder's written PCP should include: written documentation that the equipment complies with the federal Firearms Act and all applicable provincial and local legislation and that firearms are well maintained as per manufacturer's recommendations, can be used as the primary method of stunning birds or rabbits in low volume establishments because of the slower line speeds, requires equipment appropriate for the species. 1. So there is a rigid adherence to strict procedure and none of hurried methods of the "production line" slaughter house. therefore, the electrode(s) are not positioned on the animal's neck or muzzle, for example for rabbits: when electrical head-only stunning equipment for rabbits is used to make contact with the muzzle of the rabbit and not span the brain, this will cause electroimmobilization only and not an effective stun, for head only electric stunning, the stun-to-stick interval should not exceed 15 seconds for most species, for head-to-body stunning, the outcome is generally an irreversible outcome, when done properly. initial tonic phase of the seizure includes: constant rapid body and wing tremors immediately after stunning, rigidly extended legs (may be difficult to see in shackles), may have petit mal body convulsions including non-intentional wing flapping after rapid body tremors have stopped, rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movements to indicate breathing), swallowing reflex (deglutition reflex), manifested as beak movements after stunning (from water entering mouth) and after cutting (from blood entering the mouth), shaking of head during cutting and bleeding from blood entering nares (intentional body movement), vigorous wing flapping (intentional body movement), return of tension in the neck after the limp phase, some types of current systems can have a relaxing or immobilizing effect on the neck ; in these cases the signs of return to sensibility after stunning can be masked, response to pain, such as neck cutting, can be an arc-reflex involving spinal neural pathways only and is not a reliable indicator for sensibility; it must evaluated with other signs and what electrical parameters are used to stun the bird, loss of rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movement to indicate rhythmic breathing), rigidly extended legs (more difficult to see when shackled), vigorous involuntary flapping and severe convulsions, absence of a third eyelid (nictitating membrane) movement and other eye movements and reflexes, response to pain, such as neck cutting can be an arc-reflex involving spinal neural pathways only is not a reliable indicator for sensibility; it must evaluated with other signs, such as whether the head is floppy, loss of posture, muscle tone, relaxed, limp body, no rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movement to indicate rhythmic breathing), absence of third eyelid (nictitating membrane) reflex or spontaneous blinking, blinking (third eyelid) and third eyelid reflex, the outcome of effective cutting and bleeding of all food animals is to result in death through exsanguination of the animal with all methods of stunning, especially if there is any potential for the stunning to be reversible, this ensures the animal will not regain consciousness during further dressing procedures, stunned animals are bled out as soon as possible and remain insensible until death, the time between effective stun and effective stick is kept to a minimum. For all multiple bird systems, birds should only be suspended on the shackle line for a minimum amount of time, not more than 2 minutes for ducks, geese and turkeys and not more than 1 minute for other poultry prior to stunning because: they have no diaphragms and there is increased cardiac pressure and bird death when in a prolonged inverted position, furthermore, there is the risk of pain and injury from the shackle from compression on the metatarsus, especially if it is not the correct size slot for the size of bird, shackles with moveable, tapering slots generally work better than parallel slots, if the shackles are too large there will be poor contact and insufficient current flow, if the shackles are too small it will be painful and induce flapping which interferes with stunning, wetting shackles can improve conductivity, The output of the electrical equipment (volts or amps) should be tested under load, using equipment which can simulate the resistance of a shackled bird or a bird's head depending on the placement of the electrodes, the waterbath should be sufficiently large (width, length and depth) to accommodate the wing span and body mass for the type of bird(s) being slaughtered and to avoid birds heads or other parts being trapped outside of the waterbath sides, all equipment should be cleaned, maintained, adjusted and tested to ensure it is operating properly with good current flow before the beginning of each day's operations, the water bath (live) electrode needs to be kept clean and must run the entire length of the waterbath to facilitate current flow, the ground (shackle) electrode needs to be regularly cleaned and have constant contact with the shackles since intermittent contact results in a less effective, intermittent stun, protocol for the maintenance of the stunning equipment, methods used to determine the electrical settings for each lot and type of birds processed, including a means to validate effective stunning parameters. WELCOME TO MY Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Possible discomfort associated with this method must be controlled through the rate of decompression and O. SWWs need significant treatment for a sustainable and safe discharge to the environment due to the … The licence holder's written animal welfare PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: monitoring, verification and corrective action procedures to ensure birds are effectively stunned and do not return to sensibility before bleeding, in the case of irreversible CAS stunning, the outcome is that the birds are dead upon exit from the container; however this should be verified through validation or documented evidence that this outcome is consistently met. every establishment using gas stunning should have a written protocol that is linked to or is part of the establishment food safety PCP to identify DOAs and how identified DOAs are removed: the licence holder may choose to identify and remove DOAs either before or after the CAS step, the protocol may be based on an acceptable standard or practice that is derived from documented evidence (such as scientific articles or studies) or it may be the result of validation studies conducted in the establishment, the system (including the modules if using a system where birds are not removed) where birds are exposed to the gas and the equipment used to convey them through the system should be designed and maintained to avoid injury and unnecessary stress, the gas system should be designed so birds can be visually monitored during the induction phase, throughout the stunning phase and accessed if the conveyance system fails in accordance with the PCP corrective action procedures. This guide is intended to instruct smallholders in the most humane methods of slaughtering poultry. 3. The licence holder's written PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: the stunning equipment is clearly defined which type of stunning it is meant to provide , including reversible or irreversible stunning outcome, the protocol requiring that it is used properly as per the manufacturer's specifications to result in an effective stun, the equipment is positioned correctly to span the brain for the current to flow through the brain, there is a written protocol for the routine maintenance of the equipment, frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift changes, before each new lot of animals or employee shift changes. Do Coyotes Eat Their Prey Where They Kill It, Southern California Institute Of Architecture Requirements, F Major Scale Ukulele, Great Horned Owl Vs Eagle Owl, New Design Shoes Girl 2020, Dartmouth Internal Medicine Residency Step 1 Score, Harry Potter Crochet Kit, Liberation Fonts Arial, New Words With Meaning, The Philadelphia Story House, Are There Hyenas In Australia, Irish Landscape Photography, " /> Skin forelegs and hindlegs, fist over breast, abdomen and sides, and after hanging, fist over legs, back, rump and shoulder. The slaughter of livestock involves three distinct stages: preslaughter handling, stunning, and slaughtering. targeting the brainstem using landmarks other than midline frontal may include, for example,: the side of the head, behind the ear or near the poll at the top or the back of the head, however, alternative approaches may increase the likelihood that the brainstem and midbrain will be missed, a projectile can sever the spinal cord without causing unconsciousness. The definitely conscious will be clearly distinguishable from the definitely unconsciousness (including brain dead) by observation of well documented signs associated with these states. There is the risk for any stunning method to fail; however with well trained and qualified staff, equipment used according to the manufacturer's specifications and which is always kept well maintained, these risks should be controllable to the point that the outcome of avoidable suffering can be achieved. MS student in Animal Science The licence holder's written PCP should include: written documentation that the equipment complies with the federal Firearms Act and all applicable provincial and local legislation and that firearms are well maintained as per manufacturer's recommendations, can be used as the primary method of stunning birds or rabbits in low volume establishments because of the slower line speeds, requires equipment appropriate for the species. 1. So there is a rigid adherence to strict procedure and none of hurried methods of the "production line" slaughter house. therefore, the electrode(s) are not positioned on the animal's neck or muzzle, for example for rabbits: when electrical head-only stunning equipment for rabbits is used to make contact with the muzzle of the rabbit and not span the brain, this will cause electroimmobilization only and not an effective stun, for head only electric stunning, the stun-to-stick interval should not exceed 15 seconds for most species, for head-to-body stunning, the outcome is generally an irreversible outcome, when done properly. initial tonic phase of the seizure includes: constant rapid body and wing tremors immediately after stunning, rigidly extended legs (may be difficult to see in shackles), may have petit mal body convulsions including non-intentional wing flapping after rapid body tremors have stopped, rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movements to indicate breathing), swallowing reflex (deglutition reflex), manifested as beak movements after stunning (from water entering mouth) and after cutting (from blood entering the mouth), shaking of head during cutting and bleeding from blood entering nares (intentional body movement), vigorous wing flapping (intentional body movement), return of tension in the neck after the limp phase, some types of current systems can have a relaxing or immobilizing effect on the neck ; in these cases the signs of return to sensibility after stunning can be masked, response to pain, such as neck cutting, can be an arc-reflex involving spinal neural pathways only and is not a reliable indicator for sensibility; it must evaluated with other signs and what electrical parameters are used to stun the bird, loss of rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movement to indicate rhythmic breathing), rigidly extended legs (more difficult to see when shackled), vigorous involuntary flapping and severe convulsions, absence of a third eyelid (nictitating membrane) movement and other eye movements and reflexes, response to pain, such as neck cutting can be an arc-reflex involving spinal neural pathways only is not a reliable indicator for sensibility; it must evaluated with other signs, such as whether the head is floppy, loss of posture, muscle tone, relaxed, limp body, no rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movement to indicate rhythmic breathing), absence of third eyelid (nictitating membrane) reflex or spontaneous blinking, blinking (third eyelid) and third eyelid reflex, the outcome of effective cutting and bleeding of all food animals is to result in death through exsanguination of the animal with all methods of stunning, especially if there is any potential for the stunning to be reversible, this ensures the animal will not regain consciousness during further dressing procedures, stunned animals are bled out as soon as possible and remain insensible until death, the time between effective stun and effective stick is kept to a minimum. For all multiple bird systems, birds should only be suspended on the shackle line for a minimum amount of time, not more than 2 minutes for ducks, geese and turkeys and not more than 1 minute for other poultry prior to stunning because: they have no diaphragms and there is increased cardiac pressure and bird death when in a prolonged inverted position, furthermore, there is the risk of pain and injury from the shackle from compression on the metatarsus, especially if it is not the correct size slot for the size of bird, shackles with moveable, tapering slots generally work better than parallel slots, if the shackles are too large there will be poor contact and insufficient current flow, if the shackles are too small it will be painful and induce flapping which interferes with stunning, wetting shackles can improve conductivity, The output of the electrical equipment (volts or amps) should be tested under load, using equipment which can simulate the resistance of a shackled bird or a bird's head depending on the placement of the electrodes, the waterbath should be sufficiently large (width, length and depth) to accommodate the wing span and body mass for the type of bird(s) being slaughtered and to avoid birds heads or other parts being trapped outside of the waterbath sides, all equipment should be cleaned, maintained, adjusted and tested to ensure it is operating properly with good current flow before the beginning of each day's operations, the water bath (live) electrode needs to be kept clean and must run the entire length of the waterbath to facilitate current flow, the ground (shackle) electrode needs to be regularly cleaned and have constant contact with the shackles since intermittent contact results in a less effective, intermittent stun, protocol for the maintenance of the stunning equipment, methods used to determine the electrical settings for each lot and type of birds processed, including a means to validate effective stunning parameters. WELCOME TO MY Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Possible discomfort associated with this method must be controlled through the rate of decompression and O. SWWs need significant treatment for a sustainable and safe discharge to the environment due to the … The licence holder's written animal welfare PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: monitoring, verification and corrective action procedures to ensure birds are effectively stunned and do not return to sensibility before bleeding, in the case of irreversible CAS stunning, the outcome is that the birds are dead upon exit from the container; however this should be verified through validation or documented evidence that this outcome is consistently met. every establishment using gas stunning should have a written protocol that is linked to or is part of the establishment food safety PCP to identify DOAs and how identified DOAs are removed: the licence holder may choose to identify and remove DOAs either before or after the CAS step, the protocol may be based on an acceptable standard or practice that is derived from documented evidence (such as scientific articles or studies) or it may be the result of validation studies conducted in the establishment, the system (including the modules if using a system where birds are not removed) where birds are exposed to the gas and the equipment used to convey them through the system should be designed and maintained to avoid injury and unnecessary stress, the gas system should be designed so birds can be visually monitored during the induction phase, throughout the stunning phase and accessed if the conveyance system fails in accordance with the PCP corrective action procedures. This guide is intended to instruct smallholders in the most humane methods of slaughtering poultry. 3. The licence holder's written PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: the stunning equipment is clearly defined which type of stunning it is meant to provide , including reversible or irreversible stunning outcome, the protocol requiring that it is used properly as per the manufacturer's specifications to result in an effective stun, the equipment is positioned correctly to span the brain for the current to flow through the brain, there is a written protocol for the routine maintenance of the equipment, frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift changes, before each new lot of animals or employee shift changes. Do Coyotes Eat Their Prey Where They Kill It, Southern California Institute Of Architecture Requirements, F Major Scale Ukulele, Great Horned Owl Vs Eagle Owl, New Design Shoes Girl 2020, Dartmouth Internal Medicine Residency Step 1 Score, Harry Potter Crochet Kit, Liberation Fonts Arial, New Words With Meaning, The Philadelphia Story House, Are There Hyenas In Australia, Irish Landscape Photography, " />

types of slaughtering methods

Abstract. Slaughterhouse killing methods seek to maximize speed, and it is widely believed that the fastest way to drain animals of all of their blood is to slit their throats while their hearts are still beating. 2015 Jun 30; 4(3): 4576: EFSA Journal (2004), 45, 1 -29, (English only): European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) publications for monitoring of stunning during slaughter, 2013: Verhoeven, Merel, Marien Gerritzen, Antonio Velarde, Ludo Hellebrekers, Bas Kemp. Al-dzabh (slaughter) Severing the trachea (halqum), oesophagus (mari’)and the carotid arteries and jugular veins (wadajain) of sheep, cattle and poultry. Not only can the stunning method itself cause suffering if ineffectively done, it can result in the completely unacceptable situation where a still conscious animal is exposed to further dressing procedures that will cause it great anguish before it dies. … All cattle killed in Australian abattoirs are restrained upright and stunned during slaughter, including tho… Electroimmobilization may occur if the current bypasses the brain in the multiple bird electrical waterbath or plate systems. For slaughtering, before the neck cutting, chickens are immobilized manually or immobilized using shackles. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Some reasons for this include higher resistance from an individual bird or the bird's incorrect positioning when presented to the source of electricity. As such, some people may find some of the descriptions and graphics upsetting. Halal slaughter is was one of the more humane methods available to the meat industry and the only method acceptable for Muslim consumers. For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply: The licence holder's PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: CFIA Regulatory requirements for humane treatment of food animals during slaughtering activities under the Safe Food for Canadians: Controlled atmospheric stunning (CAS) references: General references for stunning and slaughter of food animals: References for physiology of stunning and signs of consciousness/unconsciousness: Intervalle entre l'étourdissement et la saignée, Captive bolt stunning of poultry or rabbits, Electrical stunning methods for mammalian food animals, Animal welfare PCP for gas stunning for pigs, Decapitation of poultry as a deviation procedure for missed stuns in poultry, Monitoring for signs of consciousness (sensibility) and unconsciousness (insensibility) in food animals after stunning, Cutting and bleeding methods for conventional slaughter, Cutting/bleeding of red meat species including ratites, Humane stunning and slaughter of food animals and post-cut management, Additional PCP Content for food animal welfare, Humane treatment of food animals at the slaughter establishment, Guidelines for Stunning Techniques of Mammalian Food Animals, Guidelines for the humane care and handling of food animals at slaughter, Guidelines for animal welfare Preventive Control Plans and self-audits for the slaughter of food animals, Guidelines for stunning techniques for avian food animals, including ratites, Low atmospheric pressure system for stunning broiler chickens, A new humane method of stunning broilers using low atmospheric pressure, Official Journal of the European Union - PDF (1,421 kb), A critical review of electrical water-bath stun systems for poultry slaughter and recent developments in alternative technologies, Optimization of stunning electrical parameters to improve animal welfare in a poultry slaughterhouse, Welfare aspects of the main systems of stunning and killing the main commercial species of animals, Report on good and adverse practices - Animal welfare concerns in relation to slaughter practices from the viewpoint of veterinary sciences, Recommended Animal Handling Guidelines & Audit Guide: A Systematic Approach to Animal Welfare, Consciousness, unconsciousness and death in the context of slaughter, Part I, Neurobiological mechanisms underlying stunning and killing, Consciousness, unconsciousness and death in the context of slaughter, Part II, Evaluation methods, Time to Loss of Consciousness and Its Relation to Behavior in Slaughter Pigs during Stunning with 80 or 95% Carbon Dioxide, Assessing unconsciousness in livestock at slaughter - PDF (8,635 kb), How to Determine Insensibility (Unconsciousness) in Cattle, Sheep and Pigs, tension in the nose , upper lip and curled tongue, The animal should remain in a state of unconsciousness that extends beyond the time required to use a neck cut to bleed the animal that results in death, The stunning method should result in minimal signs of distress in the animal before the loss of consciousness, the outcome of mechanical stunning produces a pathological state of the brain incompatible with consciousness and sensibility until the animal can be bled out, mechanical stunning requires proper targeting to achieve this outcome, the best landmark for the targeted area is a midline frontal approach, the projectile, when used, should be targeted towards the animal's brainstem for most consistent stunning results. The licence holder of the slaughter establishment should include written training protocols in the PCP to ensure that personnel who perform the task of stunning are able to check all animals to rule out the presence of consciousness. However there is a transition zone or a gray zone between consciousness and unconsciousness when the animal may slide into and out of consciousness that may require re-stunning the animal to avoid a return to consciousness. Examples of these other cases include, the brine level being too low or the bird being too small to contact the water properly. The Humane Slaughter Act, or the Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter Act (P.L. Read it on the Wiley Online Library: Article | PDF. Mahabub Alam procedures. out rates and duration, amount of blood retained, methods to determine effective slaughtering including indicators of unconsciousness, signs of recovery, sets of recommendations and guidelines) 2 3. Review research on the effect of slaughter methods on carcass and meat quality, including objective assessment criteria (e.g. If done correctly, the circuit from electrifying the electrodes will produce an electric field in the brain that depolarizes or hyperpolarizes the neuronal membranes resulting in an epileptiform seizure, which renders the animal unconscious. PRESENTATION A stunning box is the most common method of restraining cattle (Fig. Electrical stunning includes hand-held and automated electrical stunning equipment. A transverse incision of the neck is a common method of bleeding sheep. Countries differ in the methods which have been legalised for different species or different ages, some r… Swine 1. Waterbath and plate stunners are available as single phase or multiphase systems: either only one electrical phase of one waveform and current amplitude is used, or two phases of differing waveforms and/or current amplitudes are used consecutively: For example, for a two plate, two phase system: one phase delivers an AC (lower frequency alternate current phase, with sinusoidal waveform) current and the other delivers a DC pulsed current (higher frequency, direct pulsating current phase), each phase section (AC and DC) should be equipped with meters to measure the amount of current, as well as voltage, being supplied to that section of the stunner to assess the effective functioning of the equipment, the calculations of the amount of current being provided to stun each bird is not the sum of the amount delivered to each phase since each section is a separate stunning phase of the entire system and the amount delivered to each bird depends on the number of birds in each stunning phase at one time, each phase section (AC and DC) should be supplied with sufficient current to render the bird insensible, otherwise there is a risk of ineffective stunning or electroimmobilization, the ground bar should come in contact with all shackles over the AC and DC phase sections. It is the shooting, by a gun or pistol in the forehead (mechanical method) by a blank cartridge or compressed air. The outcome of electrical stunning is to pass current of sufficient strength and duration through the brain to interrupt normal brain rhythmic electrical activity. And ones that use little equipment are often quite popular, so that you don't have to be carrying lots of tools around with you. The operational parameters of the equipment should have a protocol that includes: how the equipment is tested and the frequency of testing, methods used to determine the gas concentrations, exposure times for the species, the size(s) of birds processed, the gas mixtures and methods used are those proven to be effective and humane, the establishment should have a protocol in place to identify birds that are conscious upon exit from the gas stunning system, through an effective monitoring procedure, especially if the outcome is not irreversible gas stunning, and ensure the birds are immediately re-stunned or humanely killed, LAPS is a computer controlled patented system that uses slow decompression (vacuum) to remove O. LAPS may provide the same animal welfare standards not less than the presently accepted methods available. Emergency killing of poultry are often methods that are simple and quick to use. Effective stunning is highly dependent on the voltage and especially the current amperage used: poultry are electrically stunned using sufficiently high current, voltage and length of application, the stun could become irreversible and result in the bird's death, when using lower voltages for electric wet plate stunners, there can be a higher inherent risk of electroimmobilization or ineffective stunning, in general, the higher the frequency and the lower the voltage and current amperage, the more likely the bird will return to sensibility rapidly and the higher the risk for birds that could be electroimmobilized, theoretically, the current flowing through each bird is dependent on the total amperage of current, the number of birds and the amount of resistance in each bird, in practice, divide the total current flow registered on the ammeters by the number of birds in the bath to get an approximate idea of current amperage per bird. These methods of slaughter differ from the humane practice andits associated techniques in the sense that by interpretation of the basictenets governing them, the animals must be in a state of consciousnessat the time they are bled. Anal region: Clear skin carefully from around anus avoiding puncturing it … De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "poultry slaughtering" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. The pre-stun facilities in lairage, including gondolas and automated gates to move the pigs, and the stunning chambers, pit, in addition to the post-stun facilities, should be specifically designed: for CAS stunning and for the size and weight of pigs, to avoid injury, overcrowding or unnecessary stress, to continuously measure and display the gas concentration at induction and at the point of maximum gas concentration, the time of exposure should also be displayed or indicated, so animals can be visually monitored during the induction phase for any behaviour indicating distress from adverseness to the inhaled gas (agitation and escaping behaviour), so animals can be accessed if the conveyance system fails, taking into account personnel safety, so the adjacent work area is equipped with gas-measuring equipment that continuously measure and display the gas concentrations, to provide a visible and audible warning to staff, if the gases used in stunning exceed the maximum allowed in the surrounding work area, so the concentration of gases in the work area do not exceed those permitted under provincial and/or federal OSH requirements, it is recommended to use the gondola group system for pit type of gas stunning systems since pigs are generally calmer when stunned in groups than when moved in single file to the stunner, a protocol for animal handling to be carried out by competent employees during pre-stun to minimize stress, the gas concentrations and time of exposure are documented in the PCP and selected to minimize the stress of induction of anesthesia, gas mixtures and methods that used are those proven to be effective and humane. a protocol to monitor the behaviour of animals during the induction of unconsciousness so that corrective actions can be implemented for observable problems: such as animals piling up or falling on top of each, vocalizing or attempting to escape, the measures to ensure that exposure time and gas concentration are sufficient to ensure animals do not regain consciousness before death by bleeding, the measures to ensure sufficient line space to shackle and bleed stunned animals during line stoppages, corrective action procedures to ensure humane stunning occurs during line stoppages, corrective action procedures to ensure that there is well maintained back-up stunning equipment available at all times. Temple Grandin – Updated June 2017 to include information on Zone of Transition between fully conscious and unconscious. Humane Methods of Slaughter Act Originally passed in 1958, the law that is enforced today by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) was passed as the Humane Slaughter Act of 1978. Although the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations (SFCR) came into force on January 15, 2019, certain requirements may apply in 2020 and 2021 based on food commodity, type of activity and business size. This is to purify the animal’s body of any type of bacteria, toxins or germs that may reside in the blood of the animal, which can lead to different types of illnesses. If a landmark other than the midline frontal is used then it will require documented evidence or validation by the licence holder to show the alternative approach can stun the animal properly: for example, a poll (top of the head) entry using firearms may be more useful for heavily horned sheep and all goats, captive bolt stunning may be penetrative or non-penetrative, both methods rely on the outcome of instantaneous and massive disruption of brain function to render the animal unconscious, Cartridges with compressed air, gunpowder or a spring under tension drive the bolt either against the skull or through it, the outcome causes unconsciousness from the combined effect of the concussive blow to the head and the penetrating bolt creating damage to the brain as it passes through and retracts, the impact alone creates pressure or shock waves that have multiple effects disrupting normal brain function, including flattening of the cerebrum contralateral to the shot, the passage and retraction of the bolt creates additional damage from a cavitation effect, hemorrhage, bone fragmentation, crushing, laceration and tearing of axons and blood vessels, even when the targeting is not optimal, such as when the animal moves, the animal may still be correctly stunned because of the massive damage from the impact and local damage of the bolt; therefore, slightly lower or slightly higher targeting can still work as long as essential parts of the brainstem are still damaged, however if the relevant structures are not damaged or the damage is limited, the animal may be still conscious or partially conscious and will require a second stun, targeting too high will only reach the cerebellum, targeting too low will only slightly damage the frontal cortex with the undesirable outcome that the animal is wounded but conscious, the outcome relies on the mushroom head causing unconsciousness from the concussive impact of the blow alone, rapid oscillations in the resulting pressure waves cause the resulting loss of consciousness, there may also be concurrent fracturing of the skull from the impact and internal brain hemorrhage, it requires extreme accuracy to be effective; therefore the landmarks are extremely important, for this reason, it should be used only in very young and small animals such as poultry, rabbits, and ruminants weighing less than 10kg and the head should be well-restrained to help with the accuracy of the blow, However, in immature animals, this method may crush the skull and result in an ineffective stun. Depending on which areas of the brain are affected, this state of unconscious can be superficial and short lasting or deeper and longer lasting. However, it may not always provide a consistent uniform stunning concentration of CO, This may lead to a failure to stun some birds or that some birds regain consciousness prior to bleeding, For some systems in use, a more gradual increase in CO. Total dwell time will depend on class or species of poultry, average weight of birds, equipment and parameters used and whether the outcome is intended to be reversible or irreversible stunning. This Act requires the proper treatment and humane handling of all food animals slaughtered in USDA inspected slaughter plants. Electrical - used on sheep, calves and pigs. This method is also used for ritual slaughtering of sheep and cattle. Sheep Removal of pelt 1. stunning, shutting, electrical shock…etc., are hindering the bleeding process. University, The electrodes, whether hand-held or automated (multiple bird systems) must still span the brain to produce an effective stun. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The Slaughterer The Animal Slaughtered Tools and Equipment of Slaughterer The Slaughtering Process Different types of restraints are appropriate for different species: Cattle. stunned as per other slaughter as certain stun methods (not captive-bolt) are accepted by a number of halal certification bodies for certain species.1 However, any stunning is considered ‘injuring’ the animal in Jewish Law and is not permitted. In order to safeguard the welfare of the birds to be killed, it is necessary for the guide to be both thorough and illustrated. By contrast, reversible stunning methods will allow the animal to regain consciousness and these rely on the bleeding out stage from cutting the blood vessels to result in the death of the animal. The meat processing industry is one of the largest consumers of total freshwater used in the agricultural and livestock industry worldwide. The section reads as follows  Either of the following two methods of slaughtering and handling are hereby found to be humane: a) In the case of cattle, calves, horses, mules, sheep, swine, and other livestock, all animals are rendered insensible to pain by a single blow or gunshot or an electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective, before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut. Khulshi, Chittagong -4202 The conditions for Halal slaughter can be summarized as follows: The animal to be slaughtered must be from the categories that are permitted for Muslims to eat. 2. the recommended equipment settings for each size of animal that is stunned including specification of: In cases where the manufacturer's recommendations are not used, there should be documented evidence or a validation study in the establishment to support the alternative approach, the voltage and amperage are monitored, easy to see and are recorded on an ongoing basis throughout the shift, the amperage is the more important parameter to assess effective stunning, the length of time of the current is applied on the animal is measured and recorded, a backup and well maintained stunning equipment should be quickly available as a deviation procedure. signs of potential return to consciousness/sensibility which are evaluated in the context of the whole picture, as a collective assessment and must include enough signs as indicators to make this assessment correctly. In most traditional slaughters, however, there are no fast rules,at least in Africa, hence some o… The bleeding must also be complete. Ritual slaughter is performed by a throat cut, which severs all soft tissues of the throat (muscles, blood vessels, esophagus, trachea, nerves) without preslaughter stunning. Stunning should fulfill the following requirements in order to demonstrate the outcome of avoidable suffering to the individual food animal: Assessing the state of unconsciousness in the stunned animal is not always a straightforward task. Cradle dressing —> Skin forelegs and hindlegs, fist over breast, abdomen and sides, and after hanging, fist over legs, back, rump and shoulder. The slaughter of livestock involves three distinct stages: preslaughter handling, stunning, and slaughtering. targeting the brainstem using landmarks other than midline frontal may include, for example,: the side of the head, behind the ear or near the poll at the top or the back of the head, however, alternative approaches may increase the likelihood that the brainstem and midbrain will be missed, a projectile can sever the spinal cord without causing unconsciousness. The definitely conscious will be clearly distinguishable from the definitely unconsciousness (including brain dead) by observation of well documented signs associated with these states. There is the risk for any stunning method to fail; however with well trained and qualified staff, equipment used according to the manufacturer's specifications and which is always kept well maintained, these risks should be controllable to the point that the outcome of avoidable suffering can be achieved. MS student in Animal Science The licence holder's written PCP should include: written documentation that the equipment complies with the federal Firearms Act and all applicable provincial and local legislation and that firearms are well maintained as per manufacturer's recommendations, can be used as the primary method of stunning birds or rabbits in low volume establishments because of the slower line speeds, requires equipment appropriate for the species. 1. So there is a rigid adherence to strict procedure and none of hurried methods of the "production line" slaughter house. therefore, the electrode(s) are not positioned on the animal's neck or muzzle, for example for rabbits: when electrical head-only stunning equipment for rabbits is used to make contact with the muzzle of the rabbit and not span the brain, this will cause electroimmobilization only and not an effective stun, for head only electric stunning, the stun-to-stick interval should not exceed 15 seconds for most species, for head-to-body stunning, the outcome is generally an irreversible outcome, when done properly. initial tonic phase of the seizure includes: constant rapid body and wing tremors immediately after stunning, rigidly extended legs (may be difficult to see in shackles), may have petit mal body convulsions including non-intentional wing flapping after rapid body tremors have stopped, rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movements to indicate breathing), swallowing reflex (deglutition reflex), manifested as beak movements after stunning (from water entering mouth) and after cutting (from blood entering the mouth), shaking of head during cutting and bleeding from blood entering nares (intentional body movement), vigorous wing flapping (intentional body movement), return of tension in the neck after the limp phase, some types of current systems can have a relaxing or immobilizing effect on the neck ; in these cases the signs of return to sensibility after stunning can be masked, response to pain, such as neck cutting, can be an arc-reflex involving spinal neural pathways only and is not a reliable indicator for sensibility; it must evaluated with other signs and what electrical parameters are used to stun the bird, loss of rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movement to indicate rhythmic breathing), rigidly extended legs (more difficult to see when shackled), vigorous involuntary flapping and severe convulsions, absence of a third eyelid (nictitating membrane) movement and other eye movements and reflexes, response to pain, such as neck cutting can be an arc-reflex involving spinal neural pathways only is not a reliable indicator for sensibility; it must evaluated with other signs, such as whether the head is floppy, loss of posture, muscle tone, relaxed, limp body, no rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movement to indicate rhythmic breathing), absence of third eyelid (nictitating membrane) reflex or spontaneous blinking, blinking (third eyelid) and third eyelid reflex, the outcome of effective cutting and bleeding of all food animals is to result in death through exsanguination of the animal with all methods of stunning, especially if there is any potential for the stunning to be reversible, this ensures the animal will not regain consciousness during further dressing procedures, stunned animals are bled out as soon as possible and remain insensible until death, the time between effective stun and effective stick is kept to a minimum. For all multiple bird systems, birds should only be suspended on the shackle line for a minimum amount of time, not more than 2 minutes for ducks, geese and turkeys and not more than 1 minute for other poultry prior to stunning because: they have no diaphragms and there is increased cardiac pressure and bird death when in a prolonged inverted position, furthermore, there is the risk of pain and injury from the shackle from compression on the metatarsus, especially if it is not the correct size slot for the size of bird, shackles with moveable, tapering slots generally work better than parallel slots, if the shackles are too large there will be poor contact and insufficient current flow, if the shackles are too small it will be painful and induce flapping which interferes with stunning, wetting shackles can improve conductivity, The output of the electrical equipment (volts or amps) should be tested under load, using equipment which can simulate the resistance of a shackled bird or a bird's head depending on the placement of the electrodes, the waterbath should be sufficiently large (width, length and depth) to accommodate the wing span and body mass for the type of bird(s) being slaughtered and to avoid birds heads or other parts being trapped outside of the waterbath sides, all equipment should be cleaned, maintained, adjusted and tested to ensure it is operating properly with good current flow before the beginning of each day's operations, the water bath (live) electrode needs to be kept clean and must run the entire length of the waterbath to facilitate current flow, the ground (shackle) electrode needs to be regularly cleaned and have constant contact with the shackles since intermittent contact results in a less effective, intermittent stun, protocol for the maintenance of the stunning equipment, methods used to determine the electrical settings for each lot and type of birds processed, including a means to validate effective stunning parameters. WELCOME TO MY Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Possible discomfort associated with this method must be controlled through the rate of decompression and O. SWWs need significant treatment for a sustainable and safe discharge to the environment due to the … The licence holder's written animal welfare PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: monitoring, verification and corrective action procedures to ensure birds are effectively stunned and do not return to sensibility before bleeding, in the case of irreversible CAS stunning, the outcome is that the birds are dead upon exit from the container; however this should be verified through validation or documented evidence that this outcome is consistently met. every establishment using gas stunning should have a written protocol that is linked to or is part of the establishment food safety PCP to identify DOAs and how identified DOAs are removed: the licence holder may choose to identify and remove DOAs either before or after the CAS step, the protocol may be based on an acceptable standard or practice that is derived from documented evidence (such as scientific articles or studies) or it may be the result of validation studies conducted in the establishment, the system (including the modules if using a system where birds are not removed) where birds are exposed to the gas and the equipment used to convey them through the system should be designed and maintained to avoid injury and unnecessary stress, the gas system should be designed so birds can be visually monitored during the induction phase, throughout the stunning phase and accessed if the conveyance system fails in accordance with the PCP corrective action procedures. This guide is intended to instruct smallholders in the most humane methods of slaughtering poultry. 3. The licence holder's written PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: the stunning equipment is clearly defined which type of stunning it is meant to provide , including reversible or irreversible stunning outcome, the protocol requiring that it is used properly as per the manufacturer's specifications to result in an effective stun, the equipment is positioned correctly to span the brain for the current to flow through the brain, there is a written protocol for the routine maintenance of the equipment, frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift changes, before each new lot of animals or employee shift changes.

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