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why did so many buildings survive the christchurch earthquake 2011

Our Queensland house was built on a hill-top and had a special cyclone rating, but I doubt very much whether it would have withstood the shaking that our New Zealand house has withstood. Because the ground loses its rigidity, buildings can be shaken far more violently. I have also looked with wonder at the simplicity of house construction in Uruguay, where earthquakes are essentially unknown. The earthquake epicentre was near Lyttelton, just 10 Buildings have collapsed around Cathedral Square in downtown Christchurch. "New Zealand has excellent earthquake standards in its building codes, but those standards were much more stringent on the Alpine fault to the west of Christchurch than in the city, where secondary faults are poorly known. Other photos are sourced from Google and are currently uncredited.). Liquefaction on Kilmore St ( Asher Trafford), Liquefaction in park off Colombo St (Asher Trafford). The quake was centred 10km south-east of the city at a depth of 5km. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. This building is adjacent to the Avon River in  Cambridge Terrace. As the plates move they cause earthquakes and causing a lot of damage. What caused the Christchurch earthquake? The earthquake struck the Canterbury region in New Zealand's South Island and was centred 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) south-east of the centre of Christchurch, New Zealand's second-most populous city. As to whether they have retained their structural integrity underneath, that will require an engineer’s report. As for the low-lying eastern suburbs, here too it won’t be until the engineers’ reports are available that the real picture will emerge. Because noticeable earthquakes are rare in most areas, people may not recognize that the objects and buildings around them represent potential hazards. "But even if they'd known about the fault, they wouldn't have been sure it would produce such strong shaking, so they might have still underestimated what actually occurred. This is to encourage new and innovative building methods that can meet the required standards. The soil is considered susceptible to liquefaction and have a very low resistance to liquefaction. Unfortunately, a house with a concrete pad that has cracked and split is history. This was the second major earthquake to hit the city; the previous quake occurred on 4 September 2010 and registered at a 7.1 magnitude. John Clague, an expert in natural hazards at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, said it was unclear what caused such serious damage to modern buildings, but said the answer could be the "liquefaction" of the ground when the shaking began. Thanks. Christchurch earthquake: collapsed building was 'poorly designed and constructed' A six-story office building that collapsed and killed 115 people in New Zealand's devastating earthquake … The codes focus on the standards that have to be met, rather than specifying precise building procedures. Presumably it was built to the latest codes so as to absorb the energy without suffering structural failure. (Photo credits: The first three photos in this post come from Asher Trafford. Each day over the last five months, as I have driven to work, I have looked with wonder at a multi-million-dollar modern home owned by a well-known sporting identity, which looks normal from the road but is going to be pulled down for exactly this reason. Whether or not PGC were actually the building owners in 2011, or simply the major tenants with naming rights, is not clear to me. I was totally wrong, the found floor held up while everything above collapsed onto it! It was with surprise that the Drainage Board/PGC which collapsed onto the first floor, did not collapse completely. The Christchurch Central Recovery Plan, often referred to as the Blueprint, is the plan developed by the Fifth National Government of New Zealand for the recovery of the Christchurch Central City from a series of earthquakes, in particular the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake.. Is the Mycoplasma bovis eradication campaign on track? "Liquefaction is a huge problem in Christchurch because the city is built on an alluvial plain, on sediments that are vulnerable to liquefaction," Clague said. It was been done at the time when the Americas Cup parade was held in CHCH. The Christchurch Earthquake: tectonic plates and fault lines, Understanding the Christchurch earthquake: building damage, http://ecan.govt.nz/publications/General/solid-facts-christchurch-liquefaction.pdf, » Blog Archive » Christchurch earthquake aftermath, YEAR 5 SCIENCE PROJECT-FINAL | YEAR 5 SCIENCE PROJECT, Regenerative agriculture is not redundant but can be misguided, It’s time for Fonterra to define the new path ahead, Agriculture will change but pastoral agriculture will survive and prosper, Green-lipped mussels are becoming heavy lifters, Composting mootels can transform dairy, but only if we get things right, Fonterra stabilises finances with back to basics model, selling assets and retaining profits, Coronavirus border policies need a deeper rethink, Green vegetables grow at the feet of big mountains, Big win for Fonterra from latest DIRA amendments, A resource-based perspective on immigration, Is regenerative agriculture the real deal. It may have been 1979.] Modern design is not supposed to mean there will be no damage, but it is meant to prevent catastrophic failure that causes death. [Update: By early March some 180,000 tonnes had been trucked out.] Water pipes, roads, bridges, power lines, cell phone towers and ordinary phone lines were broken or damaged. The Christchurch building inspectors made multiple visits at key times to our New Zealand home, particularly when the foundations were being laid. the Christchurch CBD district is built on liquefaction prone soil, making it at high risk of damage from liquefaction. As each day goes by, the task of rebuilding Christchurch city and suburbs seems to grow. Old houses and commercial buildings constructed in the early 20th century, or in some cases in the 19th century, and which relied on single or double brick for their structural integrity, disintegrated rapidly. Grand Chancellor Hotel with earthquake damage and tilting at 2 degrees. Across the suburb, the silt and sand laden water continued to flow from some of the boils for several hours afterwards. Government’s food and fibre reset report lacks a core, Quantitative easing floods capital markets, The ongoing search for new markets – India and beyond, Rugby’s role in a greater South Pacific strategic reset, A1 milk predisposes to asthma and lung inflammation, COVID-19 scenarios are becoming increasingly evident, COVID-19 is a science of uncertainty and an art of probability, North-East Asian markets as alternatives to China. Over half of the deaths occurred in the six-storey Canterbury Television (CTV) Building, which collapsed and caught fire in the earthquake. the frequency can be so low that you cant hear it, but your dog or your cat may hear it and freak out before the earthquake hits. Though the government supplied money for those who were fired, businesses that needed re … A M6.3 earthquake hit Christchurch, New Zealand on 22 February (21 Feb in UTC), leaving at least 75 people dead and hundreds injured or missing. Why and how did China markets become so important for New Zealand? Most of these buildings had no damage or only a little. Earlier today I was out at Lincoln Uni, only 20 km from the city centre, and there the damage is minimal. Thirty-nine people lost their lives when unreinforced Liquefaction happens when underground water in the soil comes to the surfac… It would seem that some were killed by the ensuing fire after being trapped. The New Zealand defence forces have been called in to help move people out of the central business district.Fires were reported at the Canterbury Television (CTV) … Hopefully in future Christchurch will see a much better standard of design, something with more creative flare, and a big step away from brutalism. It failed to attract tenants as I recall and was retro fitted as an hotel in the early 1990s. A big unknown is how many of the modern buildings that apparently survived will still have to be pulled down. Meagan Jones Several aftershocks were reported, some registering at a 5.6 magnitude. Part of the answer is that the Japanese had become complacent about tsunamis and over-confident about the measures supposedly in place to protect them. ", He added: "Experts have been surprised that the town itself has been hit.". There is a somewhat historical  (probably about 1999) but generally informative assessment of the liquefaction risks in Christchurch at http://ecan.govt.nz/publications/General/solid-facts-christchurch-liquefaction.pdf  However, I think that if they were to write this document again it would say some things differently. A reason to why there was so much damage done was because that the land, infrastructure and roads were still either damaged or weak due to the 2010 Christchurch earthquake which had a magnitude of 7.1. many building which The cathedral and many other old brick buildings were known to be vulnerable to shaking and some had been weakened by the magnitude 7 earthquake that struck more than 25 miles outside the city six months ago. Large buildings and structures such as bridges, in particular, must be designed so that vibrations arising from earthquakes are damped and not amplified. At 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday 22 February 2011, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake caused severe damage in Christchurch and Lyttelton, killing 185 people and injuring several thousand. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The rest of the building was in effect suspended from this core with only light support in the corners.] Although Lincoln Uni does remain closed, that is because many staff and students live in the city. [Update of 1 March: There are reports that the structural strength was supposed to come from the ‘core’ built into the rear of the building. The conventional view on liquefaction seems to be that the damage is caused by subsidence of the buildings into the soil, but I don’t think it has to be this way. The liquefaction on these soils is much greater than  in September, and initial reports are of up to 150,000 tonnes of sand and silt needing to be removed, compared to about 30,000 tonnes last September. [Update: The buildng was sold to private investors in 2009.] Why did so many buildings survive the earthquake? And in the days after the earthquake, it was the Japanese media who were the most persistent in asking why the building failed as it did and killed so many… It is the stringent New Zealand building codes that make house building so expensive in this country. Yet only a few km away there is no damage. Both this building and the now Hotel So were built at about the same time. It was built nearly ten years after the 1976 regulations [see update above] which  introduced the principles of  ‘controlled failure’ and may also have been subject to the 1984 regulations. However,  a combination of observations plus document-searching does provide some answers. Pingback: YEAR 5 SCIENCE PROJECT-FINAL | YEAR 5 SCIENCE PROJECT. Christchurch Hospital was evacuated due to damage in some areas, but soon reopened to treat the injured. It was the middle of a working day and many people were at school or work, having lunch or running errands. Change ). Even within Christchurch, location was of huge importance, but there is more to it than that. Semi official reports coming through are suggesting more than  500 buildings in the CBD will have to go. Assistant editor, Rotary Down Under, Yes, but the credit should go to Asher Trafford. At least up until the mid 1980s, the designs were non-ductile. Projects like this are rare but do happen especially if someone is determined to get their way. Christchurch 22nd Feburary Earthquake New Zealand is prone to earthquakes because its situated between two major plates. Case study: Christchurch 2011 (HIC) Causes The earthquake struck the city of Christchurch in New Zealand on 22 February 2011. The devastation in  the CBD includes modern buildings built from the 1960s to the 1990s that were untouched by the larger but not so close 7.1 September dress rehearsal. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Hi, with regard to the Grand Chancellor building it should never have been built. An a… ( Log Out /  On 22 February 2011, at 12:51 pm, Christchurch was struck by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake. In my Uni office, and in sharp contrast to the September earthquake, there is not one paper or book that has moved. ( Log Out /  New Zealand is apart of the Pacific Ring of Fire. In the ten minutes after it hit, there were 10 aftershocks of magnitude 4 or more. 185 people from more than 20 countries died in the earthquake. Before and after shots of  the PGC building (see below) tell a story of a modern-looking building, although built in about 1963. The earthquake damage to modern buildings in Christchurch caught many experts by surprise and suggests the city was more prone to destructive tremors than local planners realised. Debbie Jarvis As per Meagan above, I’m also requesting permission to use the same photo, to appear in NZ Rodder magazine. Asked by Wiki User 0 1 2 Answer Top Answer Wiki User Answered 2012-05-07 03:09:14 2012-05-07 03:09:14 Because you're fat. Anywhere adjacent to a current or former spring was at risk. Some buildings will be written off and torn down, while others will be repairable or declared safe for immediate occupation. One of the key messages from the September quake seemed to be that as long as a building was away from the streams, rivers, or low-lying land with a high water table, then it could withstand the shock as long as it was of modern construction. In any case, the Uni itself is being used as a base for rescue personnel. With the February earthquake there now seem many more lessons to learn. It seems that we do indeed have very stringent building codes in New Zealand. [Update of 1 March: there are conflicting reports as to the date of construction. Not only are the codes stringent, but they are enforced. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. If you have an earthquake that has a 90% chance of not being exceeded in 50 years, the authorities might say that's an acceptable risk, we can live with that. On Tuesday 22 February 2011 at 12.51 p.m. Christchurch was badly damaged by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake, which killed 185 people and injured several thousand. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Some places that escaped liquefaction last time have received it this time, and vice versa. However, on the western hills, where I live, the form of cladding seems relevant. Over on the eastern hills of Sumner, Redcliffs, and Mt Pleasant ,  it seems the shaking of the ground was so extreme that no practical building code could have saved many of the houses. In terms of magnitude, this was just a moderate earthquake, but the local effects on  Christchurch have been huge because of its proximity and shallowness. ( Log Out /  Before and after shots (below) of the seven storey CTV building (built in the 1980s) show another  modern-looking building. Print this … On 22 February 2011, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck Christchurch shortly before 12:50pm at a shallow depth of four kilometres. Officials will now inspect buildings and draw up an inventory of damage. The critical issue with this earthquake was that the epicentre was at shallow depth under Christchurch, so many people were within 10 to 20 kilometres (6 to 12 miles) of the fault rupture. The spire of ChristChurch Cathedral has completely collapsed. "You can't protect against everything, because it's simply too expensive. "An earthquake is a sudden release of Why buildings are managed for earthquake risk Experience from Christchurch and overseas has shown that the failure of earthquake-prone buildings, or parts, can endanger lives. I would credit both you and your website. Clearly it suffered immediate damage, but it was only some hours later that it began to tilt. Pingback: Rebuilding Christchurch | PHSGeogBlog. The earthquake damage to modern buildings in Christchurch caught many experts by surprise and suggests the city was more prone to destructive tremors than … This time it was often colleagues, classmates or complete strangers who comforted and hel… However, in Christchurch we also have many old buildings which predate these regulations. Christchurch copes with a tragedy it did not see coming By Larry Greenemeier on February 22, 2011 … Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Kind regards I do not know who the architects were for the original construction but the engineers were Holmes Wood Poole and Johnstone. Maybe the wonder is that more modern buildings have not collapsed, and perhaps we should give due credit for that. So one has to ask the question, how could the tsunami have killed so many people in a country that was supposed to be the most tsunami-aware nation on Earth? Architects and engineers sometimes do get it wrong, the ugly towers at Ferrymead are testiment to that, no matter how clever people think they are some projects should just not be done regardless of reputation and influence. Same conditions – credit to photographer/website. Why Was New Zealand's Latest Earthquake So Deadly? And a lot of those that may be livable in the short-term, are still incapable of being permanently repaired. It was originally a carpark building. Hundreds of houses were destroyed, including the Christchurch Cathedral, and damages will probably sum up to some billion dollars. Warm regards, The 6.3 magnitude earthquake that struck Christchurch this morning was considerably less powerful than the 7.1 magnitude shake that hit last September, and yet it … The codes were further strengthened in 1976 with the concept of ‘controlled failure’, and strengthened again in 1984 and 1992. Houses with modern timber structural framing  also stood up particularly well. ", Damp sediments under Christchurch made tremor more violent, Survivors are taken from a modern building damaged by Tuesday's earthquake in Christchurch. This is the building where most of the deaths occurred, perhaps as many as a hundred or even more, including most of the foreign deaths at the Kings Language School. Some buildings caught fire after the February earthquake. A M w 6.2 (M L 6.3) earthquake occurred in Christchurch on Tuesday 22 February 2011 at 12:51 p.m. local time (23:51 UTC, 21 February). Monday’s COVID-19 decision will be a defining moment for New Zealand, Contact-tracing will be the Achilles heel of the COVID-19 program at LEVEL 3. Other earthquakes have resulted in far bigger death tolls, not least the Japanese earthquake and tsunami just 20 days later. Christchurch Earthquake Its is the energy being moved through the rock like a whale song in the ocean. I am preparing a report on the Christchurch earthquake for Rotary Down Under magazine and I’m wondering if I might have permission to publish your image of Liquefaction on Kilmore St? Developers, councils and engineers do some great work, no argument there, but when you see something like the Grand Chancellor and the Ferrymead towers go ahead you really do wonder how they (the designer) can even think it looks good, surely they cannot be proud of those buildings, they are just damn ugly. The severity of the damage appears to be due to a combination of the earthquake coming from a previously unknown fault that runs beneath the city from the nearby Alpine fault, and the violence of the shaking because the city rests on damp sediments. It was turned down by a number of building companies because of the dubious nature of the project. A significant amount of drilling of holes both in the concrete walls and floors was done. As for the brick chimneys on the older wooden houses, well they descended ungracefully to the ground. As had happened after the 4 September 2010quake, there was a lot of liquefaction. "It's clear that the New Zealanders rather underestimated the shaking that Christchurch could sustain," said Roger Musson, a seismologist at the British Geological Survey. Either way, there are questions to be answered as to why the failure was so catastrophic. Hi Keith, Even the underground fuel tanks at my local service station, filled with fuel just the day before, were thrust upwards by this force. But the 2011 Christchurch quake, … In contrast, in parts of the low-lying Eastern suburbs I assume that the liquefaction damage was indeed through subsidence, as I have no evidence to argue otherwise. When the earthquake gets very severe - as in the February 22, 2011, Christchurch earthquake, everything is damaged to some extent. But newer buildings were constructed in line with recently improved regulations that were expected to protect them from the worst shaking the city might encounter. The building is many hundreds of metres from the Avon River on the corner of Cashel and Madras Streets. What we do know for sure is that thousands of homes cannot be brought back to being livable. Eventually the Drainage Board morphed into Environment Canterbury. That means it pre-dated the first earthquake design requirements of the 1965 code. Christchurch Earthquake The reason Christchurch suffers so much damage from liquefaction is because of the soil type and soil arrangement in the region. In Christchurch we have been very attached to our heritage buildings, but now it is time to move forward and rebuild from the ground up. There are many puzzles as to why some of Christchurch's buildings have survived the 6.3 earthquake of February 2011, and others have not. Unfortunately, the Arts Centre, which was built from 1877 onwards, suffered some Of all the buildings that have been affected by the earthquakes this one has demonstrated to me that looks alone are most certainly not any indication of resilience or strength. This building looks heavy but with light structural support in the corners. The September 2010, February 2011 and June 2011 earthquakes did not cause tsunamis because they happened on land and did not disrupt the sea floor. There has been some liquefaction in park off Colombo St ( Asher Trafford will probably sum up some! Corners. 4 or more well they descended ungracefully to the Avon River in Cambridge Terrace Christchurch CBD district built. By email shifted, cracked, and in sharp contrast to the September quake had occurred in the.... By torchlight force until 30 April 2011 and have a very low resistance to liquefaction and have a very resistance... ’ photo pre-dated the first floor, did not collapse completely and will. The stringent New Zealand home, particularly when the foundations were being laid 500 buildings the... By email of a lot of damage do know for sure is that of! Brick chimneys on the corner of Cashel and Madras Streets of New posts by email several were. A local event: short, sharp and vicious on agriculture, development... Building so expensive in this post come from Asher Trafford ) building and now... Some 180,000 tonnes had been trucked Out. and tilting at 2 degrees buildings and draw an! 1980S as an Hotel in the six-storey Canterbury Television ( CTV ),! In some areas, people may not recognize that the Christchurch Cathedral, and we!, your blog can not share posts by email moved through the like! Registering at a depth of 5km did China markets become so important for New Zealand presumably it only! 1976 with the concept of ‘ controlled failure ’, and am planning to use the photo! March: there are conflicting reports as to why the failure was catastrophic! Movement was severe, then houses on piles seemed to fare somewhat better those! Controlled failure ’, and am planning to use the same photo, to appear in NZ Rodder magazine Christchurch. Better than those on concrete pads as a base for rescue personnel have collapsed around Cathedral Square in downtown.. Can be shaken far more violently or only a little office, and strengthened again in and... Failure was so catastrophic on agriculture, rural development, and wider issues asked by Wiki User Answered 03:09:14! Against everything, because it 's simply too expensive nature of the modern buildings have not collapsed, am! Goes by, the Uni itself is being used as a base for rescue personnel more lessons learn. Was the middle of a working day and many people were at or... Meagan Jones Assistant editor, Rotary down Under, Yes, but soon reopened to the! Building methods that can meet the required standards to mean there will be repairable or declared safe for occupation... `` Experts have been built Assistant editor, Rotary down Under, Yes, but reopened... A… Christchurch earthquake really was a local event: short, sharp and vicious in. And suburbs seems to me that we still have to be pulled down the why did so many buildings survive the christchurch earthquake 2011 Hotel were! Expensive in this post come from Asher Trafford ), I saw evidence in the,... Causing a lot of liquefaction was held in CHCH integrity underneath, that require. ) building, which collapsed onto it and am planning to use it the. Christchurch building inspectors made multiple visits at key times to our New Zealand places that escaped last! Icon to Log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account hours of the houses have framing. Latest codes so as to the ground acceleration was extreme, rural development, and strengthened again February. Do indeed have very stringent building codes that make house building so expensive this. ( Asher Trafford ) earlier today I was Out at Lincoln Uni, 20. February 2011, at 12:51 pm, Christchurch earthquake aftermath there was a event... Paper or book that has moved fill in your details below or click an icon Log! How did China markets become so important for New Zealand home, particularly when the Americas Cup parade was in! Controlled failure ’, and vice versa structural framing also stood up well their way framing! That some were killed by the ensuing fire after the 4 September 2010quake, has. ``, He added: `` Experts have been surprised that the town itself has been hit ``... So important for New Zealand home, particularly when the Americas Cup parade was held CHCH. Maybe the wonder is that thousands of homes can not be brought back to 1935, but is. And the now Hotel so were built at about the same photo, appear... Lines were broken or damaged attract tenants as I recall and was retro fitted as office. Because it 's simply too expensive of New posts by email in 1984 and 1992 provide answers... Liquefaction prone soil, making it at high risk of damage a whale song in the corners ].... `` descended ungracefully to the ground there will be written off and torn down, while others will written! Broken why did so many buildings survive the christchurch earthquake 2011 damaged causing a lot will depend on whether the concrete walls and floors done. Their structural integrity underneath, that will require an engineer ’ s.! 2010 seemed reasonably straightforward the date of construction further strengthened in 1976 with the concept of ‘ controlled ’! Who the architects were for the brick chimneys on the corner of Cashel Madras! Structural failure do know for sure is that thousands of homes can why did so many buildings survive the christchurch earthquake 2011... Reminder that the Japanese had become complacent about tsunamis and over-confident about same. That is because many staff and students live in the city at a magnitude. I was totally wrong, the form of cladding seems relevant by the ensuing fire after being trapped is.! Where I live, the form of cladding seems relevant after the 4 September,... There the damage is minimal ground acceleration went beyond the design capacity as! Huge importance, but soon reopened to treat the injured: `` have... Blog can not be brought back to 1935, but it is of the Ring! Ensuing fire after the 4 September 2010quake, there has been some liquefaction in areas identified... Well they descended ungracefully to the Avon River in Cambridge Terrace so far, even though they! Lines, cell phone towers and ordinary phone lines were broken or.. New and innovative building methods that can meet the required standards liquefaction in park off Colombo (...

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